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Wenn jemand z.B. Madrid besuchen will, kann man dann sagen?

Für zwei Woche gehe ich nach Madrid.

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You need to decline "Woche": it must be plural when you talk about two weeks.

It's also more idiomatic to put the subject into first position:

Ich gehe für zwei Wochen nach Madrid.

With "gehen" it's still a bit colloquial; you'd usually drive:

Ich fahre für zwei Wochen nach Madrid

...or fly.

Ich fliege für zwei Wochen nach Madrid.

Note that "für zwei Wochen" means you'll be staying there for two weeks, and it provides no information about when you plan to go.

If what you're trying to say is "I'll go to Madrid in two weeks", you'd use "in" in German:

Ich fahre/fliege in zwei Wochen nach Madrid.

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Ich finde "nach Madrid gehen" nicht colloquial sondern würde verstehen, dass jemand wirklich zu fuß gehen will. – Robert Mar 19 '14 at 18:58
If you put "für zwei Wochen" first, you emphasize the duration. It's not wrong but it is elaborate style and it is difficult to avoid a style mismatch (mix of colloquial and elaborate styles). – nalply Mar 20 '14 at 6:04
As @nalply said, putting the duration first emphasizes it. It would be fine in a text like: Für zwei Wochen fahre/fliege ich nach Madrid. Dort möchte ich einen Freund besuchen. Danach fahre ich weiter nach Barcelona. – Hulk Mar 20 '14 at 9:00

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