Basically, the position of an adverb can change the meaning of the sentence. This is true for any language. Here's an example for only.
Only he lent me five cents. (= He and nobody else lent me five cents.)
He only lent me five cents. (= He only lent me the money, he didn’t do anything else.)
He lent me only five cents. (= He didn’t lend me more than five cents.)
He lent only me five cents. (i.e. to nobody else)
You can translate these sentence to German and would end up with the same result. Position matters!
However, in your examples it's a little different. First, the second example is grammatically wrong.
And then it becomes difficult. The first sentence can have two different meanings, depending on context. Considering that the tallness is compared to someone else's tallness, sentence one and three mean almost the same thing. There's a very subtle difference, that imho is hard to grasp. In my opinion, the last sentence rather puts emphasis on ich, e.g.,
Du bist nicht der Einzige, der groß ist. Auch ich bin groß.
whereas the first sentence states just the fact that you're tall, too.
That said, there's a second meaning as pointed out by Sam in the other answer. If you listed a few adjectives beforehand, you can add this last adjective only with auch being in the third position.