I was sorting out old magazines in the garage that needed to be thrown out. On the way out I
bumped my elbow on the door. What preposition do I use here? Gegen or auf etwas stoßen?
Or does it not matter? What is the difference between the two?
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"Sich an etwas stoßen" is used as well in German.
If you hit something, you use "an" and "gegen" (to crash into / to collide with something). You physically hit it and sometimes it hurts.
It's "auf" if you find / discover / explore something (see the other answer). This does not only apply to minerals but also in case you rediscover old stuff that you have you missed or lost, or find something that is interesting.
Franz Ebner has the basics down.
"An etwas stoßen" works (like "gegen etwas stoßen") for bumping into something; If you use it reflexively (like "sich an etwas stoßen") means to bump into something (literally) or to be bothered by something (figuratively).