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In mathematical optimization, statistics, decision theory and machine learning, a loss function or cost function is a function that maps an event or values of one or more variables onto a real number intuitively representing some "cost" associated with the event.

Source: Loss function on Wikipedia

Sagt man tatsächlich "Verlustfunktion" wie z.B. auf kennt "Verlustfunktion" jedenfalls nicht.

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The Duden neither does nor should nor intends to contain special technical terms. You will find that it does not contain several mathematical terms, e.g., Eigenvektor, to give a prominent example. – Wrzlprmft May 23 '14 at 11:54
What about Kostenfunktion ? – Ingmar May 23 '14 at 12:01
Both terms "Kostenfunktion" and "Verlustfunktion" are in use. The former one is way more common. I think it depends on "how you look at it". And, apart, "Verlustfunktion" sounds quite a bit negative. – Em1 May 23 '14 at 12:51

I agree with Wrzlprmft. Duden is not the right place to look for specialized terms of a certain scientific field.

Here are some references where Verlustfunktion is used for loss function in either economic or mathematical context:

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