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Can lachen über be used only to mean laughing at something? Or can it be used when laughing at a person or situation as well?

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Refering to the title of your question, IMO the meaning of Warum lachst Du über meinen Freund? depends on the situation and emphasis. It could be understood as question for the reason why someone is laughting as well as expression that the person is upset with the fact that someone laughted. –  try-catch-finally Jun 9 at 7:37
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up vote 1 down vote accepted

If you mean lachen über meaning 'mock', you use

jemanden auslachen.

Then, your example would be

Warum lachst du meinen Freund aus?

For situations lachen über is indeed appropriate:

E.g.:

Der kleine Bub hat darüber gelacht, dass seine Schwester ins Wasser gefallen ist.

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This doesn't sound right. "hat sich gelacht" is not a proper construct. It should be "Der kleine Bub hat darueber gelacht, dass seine Schwester ins Wasser gefallen ist." –  Stefan Schroeder Jun 8 at 22:03
    
'hat sich darüber gelacht' is wrong. it could be 'hat darüber gelacht, dass' or 'hat sich darüber kaputtgelacht/schlappgelacht/totgelacht, dass'. –  Stefan Lindenberg Jun 8 at 22:16
    
Oh, sorry I fixed that. I saw somehow the edit in the other direction. –  c.p. Jun 8 at 22:24
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