How could this phrase be translated into German?
I can think of
zu einem wütenden Einzelgänger werden
or similar combinations with different adjectives, but none of them are nearly as concise as the original phrase.
It's difficult to find a translation which is as concise as the English counterpart. Maybe
Einzelgänger kennzeichnet die Wahl, vom Mainstream abzuweichen und rebellisch drückt die Art aus. Also eine Person, die kein introvertierter Einzelgänger ist, sondern jemand, der nicht mehr die Befehle von anderen ausführt und eigenständig handelt.
The other suggestions sound strange, I would use abtrünnig werden.
See also this Leo discussion.
It's hard to translate it without context. I'll try to provide some context to all examples above, maybe some fit for you.
gegen den Strom schwimmen you always try to do the opposite of the mainstream
unfolgsam sein" or "ungehorsam sein" (disobedience), "abtrünnig werden", "aus der Reihe tanzen" are mostly just used in military context, with the meaning, you don't follow your leader. But there is no anger or something in the meaning, you just dislike your orders an do something else.
"es auf eigene Faust versuchen" there has to be a group with you don't want to follow, so you try on your own
ausrasten, austicken I like these examples, they reflect the anger part in "going rogue"
das Zepter in die (eigene) Hand nehmen not used in daily German, maybe used in a novel in dark age context
das Recht in die (eigene) Hand nehmen sounds like Billy the Kid is killing the Sheriff. You can use this but bear in mind that people will get this Wild West image in their head
die Dinge in die (eigene) Hand nehmen I don't like this, it's like do it your self (selber machen), there's no anger and power in this translation
Einzelkämpfer, Ein-Mann-Armee mostly used in military situations or in daily business where you try to rise to the top in your company (Einzelkämpfer, not Ein-Mann-Armee)
Einzelgänger is someone who doesn't like to be in a group of persons, this doesn't mean he/she doesn't like the persons or their orders, this person just likes to be alone
zum rebellischen Einzelgänger werden I really belief that no German would ever use this. Maybe a film critic to describe the plot of Rambo ;)