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"Die Arbeit ist ihm gelungen"

Are then above comparatives correct? "mehr gelungen" is a pretty frequent term, but the meaning seems to be pretty convertibly.

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up vote 7 down vote accepted

I don't esteem "mehr gelungen" to be grammatically correct. It's better to use "besser" :) :

"Die Arbeit ist ihm besser gelungen."
"Die Arbeit ist ihm am besten gelungen."

Possible, too (with "Arbeit" meaning the work's result):

"Die Arbeit ist gelungener als ..."
"Die Arbeit ist am gelungensten."

But the second example is IMO used in written language mostly.

It's possible to use "meister/meiste/meistes" (Superlative of "viel") if you want to say that the work was successful only partly:

"Die meiste Arbeit ist ihm gelungen".

But this means that the work wasn't completely successful, so it's less than "Die Arbeit ist ihm gelungen." And it's better to formulate "Ein (großer) Teil der Arbeit ist ihm gelungen" than using "meister/meiste".

The difference is that "gut - besser - am besten" describes the object's overall quality, compared to another object. "viel - mehr - am meisten" denotes quantity.

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No, they're not. says

ADJ - gelungen | gelungener | am gelungensten ...

But I'd say that gelungen is not used that often for comparison, though you can do it.

Probably more common is it to strengthen or weaken it, e. g.

Das ist ihm [wirklich/absolut/definitiv] gelungen
Diese Arbeit ist ihm [nicht so gut/eher weniger/kaum/gerade so] gelungen.

But note the nuances of those adverbial qualifications.

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