The origin of this word seems to be South Tyrol (Italy, Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano).
Regarding splattne's answer, Erkennungsausweis is just a mistranslation for documento di riconoscimento. He also mentions the best translation is Lichtbildausweis, since it is a pass containing at least name and photo.
Most web links (written in German) refer to the building and construction industry, where everyone is obligated by law to wear an identity card on the building site so that it can be seen at all times. The mistranslation from Italian to German is the neologism Erkennungsausweis.
Since this is not a regular word in German, you won't find this word in Duden or any dictionary. At least as long as this word does not spread into regular German use.
This page explains what this identity card is in the case of the building and construction industry. This page isn't from South Tyrol, but I did not find any better explanation in English.
More information (why, since when, ...) in German is here (official site from South Tyrol).