I’ve just learned Schweizer, which strikes me as unusual for an adjective in:
- having a capital letter;
- not being inflected for case/gender/number.
Do the two always go hand-in-hand, and is Schweizer a rare case?
Adjectives derived from geographical terms ending in -er are always capitalized and not inflected. There are quite a few of these adjectives (especially for towns: Berliner, Hamburger, Münchner, Bremer, Kölner…), but I'm not aware of a general rule that tells us whether geographical adjectives are formed using -er (vs. -isch etc.).
For clarification, if it is not exactly clear what the OP means:
If it is part of a fixed name like "Kölner Dom", "der Regierende Bürgermeister" the adjective is capitalized... here is the source
Those DO inflect though...
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There are adjectives which don’t have capital letters and which don’t inflect – such as rosa – so no, the two don’t always go hand-in-hand.