So here is my try - the following verbs might be used in either way in spoken, sometimes depending on what you want to say, sometimes it is just random or personal preference or flow of speech:
gehen - ging
Should be used when gehen is applied in sense of "to work" or "to be"
Ich wäre gerne zu deiner Party gekommen, aber es ging nicht.
If you go places, use gegangen.
finden - fand
Should be used to express opinion.
When one actually finds an item you most people would use gefunden.
sehen - sah
Usually used when the verb is actually ausehen.
Mein Professor sah sehr müde aus.
If you see something, go for gesehen.
geben - gab
Should be used in sense of "there were" or "we had" (food talk).
Auf dem Markt gab es superfrisches Gemüse zu einem super Preis.
Am Sonntag gab es Fisch.
If you give something to someone use gegeben.
liegen - lag
Actually this used more than gelegen no matter what the context is. Hat gelegen sounds unusual to me.
Mein Schlüssel lag auf dem Tisch.
Es lag an am Wetter, dass ich nicht im Park war.
Anyway... if you yourself were lying in a park, that would be habe gelegen.
stehen - stand
Should be used if stehen is used in sense of "to be written" and actually for most of things positioned standing. Only if standing is a "real active action" then gestanden sounds fine.
In der Zeitung stand nur Quatsch.
as opposed to:
Ich habe 2 Stunden am Bahnhof gestanden.
rufen - rief
No preferences, but rief might be used by people based on personal preference.
denken - dachte
Again I think both is fine. Maybe dachte has a slight edge. but habe gedacht is ok too
tun - tat
Since Germans don't tun so much, it is mostly seen for "tut mir leid", but the other version "hat Leid getan" is good too.
Das tat mir leid.
bleiben - blieb
Should be used when the verb is actually "jdm. übrig blieben" in sense of "someone had no other choice". The other bleibens sound better with geblieben, especially if you talk about you yourself staying in a place.
Mir blieb nichts übrig als zu warten. ( I couldn't do but wait.)
Ich bin 3 Monate in Schweden geblieben.
Some general notes:
- in most of the examples above, the abstract meaning gets the real past while the "literal" meaning uses spoken (the ge-form)
- the older the people are the more likely they are to use the "real" past form.
- when the verb has a regular past stem (-te), it will almost certainly not be used in spoken.
- it might be a regional thing also and I would not be surprised if Austria or Switzerland has a different set of verbs like this
The list may not be complete, so feel free to add stuff as long as it is not super regional.
Oh and as for gewesen... I think it is purely a personal thing. In Berlin people say bin/ war gewesen in excessive amounts for instance.