So here is my try - the following verbs might be used in either way in spoken language, sometimes depending on what you want to say, sometimes it is just random or personal preference or flow of speech:
gehen - ging
Should be used in the sense of "to work" or "to be".
Ich wäre gerne zu deiner Party gekommen, aber es ging nicht.
If you go places, use gegangen.
finden - fand
Should be used to express opinion.
Ich fand den Film gut.
When one actually finds an item most people would use gefunden.
sehen - sah
Usually used when the verb is actually ausehen.
Mein Professor sah sehr müde aus.
If you see something, go for gesehen.
geben - gab
Should be used in the sense of "there were" or "we had" (food talk).
Auf dem Markt gab es superfrisches Gemüse zu einem super Preis.
Am Sonntag gab es Fisch.
If you give something to someone use gegeben.
liegen - lag
Actually this is used more often than gelegen no matter what the context is. Hat gelegen sounds unusual to me.
Mein Schlüssel lag auf dem Tisch.
Es lag am Wetter, dass ich nicht im Park war.
Anyway... if you yourself were lying in a park, that would be habe gelegen. (Also compare stehen)
stehen - stand
Should be used in the sense of "to be written" and actually for most things positioned standing. Only if standing is a "real active action" then gestanden sounds fine.
In der Zeitung stand nur Quatsch.
Das Buch stand im Regal.
as opposed to:
Ich habe 2 Stunden am Bahnhof gestanden.
rufen - rief
No preferences, but rief might be used by people based on personal preference.
denken - dachte
Again I think both are fine. Maybe dachte has a slight edge, but habe gedacht is ok too.
tun - tat
Since Germans don't tun so much, it is mostly seen for "tut mir leid", but the other version "hat mir Leid getan" is good too.
Das tat mir leid.
bleiben - blieb
Should be used when the verb is actually "jdm. übrig blieben" in the sense of "someone had no other choice". The other bleibens sound better with geblieben, especially if you talk about you yourself staying in a place.
Mir blieb nichts übrig als zu warten. ( I couldn't do anyting but wait.)
Ich bin 3 Monate in Schweden geblieben.
Some general notes:
- In most of the examples above, the abstract meaning uses the real past (preterite) while the "literal" meaning uses the ge-form (perfect).
- The older the people are the more likely they are to use the "real" past form.
- When the verb has a regular past stem (-te), it will almost certainly not be used in spoken language.
- It also might be a regional thing and I would not be surprised if Austria or Switzerland had a different set of verbs like this.
The list may not be complete, so feel free to add stuff as long as it is not super regional.
Oh, and as for gewesen... I think it is purely a personal thing. In Berlin people say bin/ war gewesen in excessive amounts for instance.