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What is the name given to verb pairs such as the ones in the thread's title, characterized by coupled vowel→umlauted vowel and meaning shifts?

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I could not find any specific description related by vowels.
I would assume Wortfamilie would be the nearest description, since all pairs of common ancestors.
Tausch(en) nutzen wagen

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The only name that comes to my mind is cognates, which are words that share the same etymological origin. Two cognates in the same language are also called doublets.

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Wörter die ähnlich geschrieben werden haben aber nicht immer die gleiche Wurzel. Stimmt das überhaupt für die Beispiele? – user unknown Dec 27 '12 at 0:21
@userunknown "Nutzen und nützen" sind genau genommen ein und dasselbe Wort, wobei letzteres nur als Verb im Sinne von "Das nützt mir nichts" verwendet wird. - "Tauschen und täuschen" haben die selbe Wurzel. - "wagen und wägen" letzten Endes auch. Wägen stammt sowieso von wiegen ab, wagen hat in der Tat seine Herleitung aber auch von der Waage. – Em1 Dec 27 '12 at 6:48
I don't think, nutzen and nützen are the same, as the former is used in the meaning of "to use" and "to be of value/to be beneficial", whereas the second doesn't have the "to use" meaning. – alexraasch Dec 27 '12 at 9:56

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