I am learning German now, I just learned how to say "where do you come from?" in German. I can say "I come from Beijing, China" in English, and I may say "Ich komme aus Beijing. Ich komme aus China." So, can I say "Ich komme aus Beijing, China." in German? Thanks in advance!
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From my point of view, that is not a phrase people say in german. There are two ways to tell where you come from:
In my opinion, it is perfectly fine to omit some of the information. If your conversation partner wants to know more, there is nothing wrong with requiring a second question.
In case we do not only want to tell people the country where we come from but also the city where we live we would put it similar to this:
As always there are many more variants to this. All is in common that we put the extra information in a separate sentence or in a subordinate clause introduced with a conjunction.
In written German it is also possible to put the country a city is in separated by a comma:
Most people in Germany will know Beijing from its German name "Peking". Everybody will know that it is the capital of China so there is no need for further explanations. "Beijing" on the other hand is not widely used. Most Germans will not even be able to spell it.
Ich komme aus Beijing in China.
A lot of people will understand the word 'Peking' (incorrectly pronounced [ˈpeːkiŋ] in German) more instantly, which sounds a little naff to people who have been exposed to matters regarding China a bit more, but it was quite normal even among these just 10 to 15 years ago, and it is still widely used in the media.
BTW, I believe you can phrase it this way in English as well: "I come from Beijing in China." The city+comma+state form seems more typical e.g. for people within North America who would say/write something like "I'm from Paris, Texas." (I still have to watch that Wim Wenders movie…) But on the international level there is nothing wrong using 'in'. (Well, except in forms and tabular CVs, where "City, Country" is probably the standard anywhere.)