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Although the title might sounds subjective, let me prove firstly that it isn't so: If the title would be

Question. Which common grammar mistakes do Russian native speakers studying German as a foreign language make?

there is an objective (perhaps not complete, but statistically speaking right)

Answer. They tend to omit or forget the article, to mix determinate with indeterminated articles (and the beginners forget the verb sein as well and only juxtapose).

I guess the same applies for another Slavic languages, but since I don't speak other than Russian, I won't say anything about them. q.e.d


Back to the question. It refers to two aspects

  1. Phonetics. Beyond the famous Ich komme aus Espanien instead of Spanien, which other phonetic mistakes have you detected from Spanish-speaking people. It could help people to lose their accent (btw. Ich komme nicht aus Spanien)

  2. Grammar. Grammar structures particularly difficult to Hispanics.

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Ich verstehe zwar deine Beweisführung nicht, aber ich denke, die ist auch nicht notwendig. Die Frage ist eher, wo gehört die Frage hin. Als Alternative fällt mir nur Linguistics stackexchange ein, bin mir aber auch nicht sicher, ob es dort richtig aufgehoben ist. Aber ich denke, dort erhältst du eine bessere Antwort als hier. –  Em1 Aug 15 '13 at 7:40
    
Tja, es ist kein eichter Beweis - der q.e.d. am Ende ist teilweise ein Witz. Meine Aussage ist es aber nicht - Russisch Muttersprachler haben sehr häufig Probleme damit. –  c.p. Aug 15 '13 at 9:37
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zu 1.) deutsches R aussprechen lernen hilft schon mal viel –  falkb Aug 15 '13 at 11:31
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Common phonetics problems are always: German has closed vowels, not open. And speak long vowels to sound German. Ask a phonetician how to create German phonemes, their position in the mouth is different from language to language. That's what makes the acccent. –  falkb Aug 16 '13 at 7:38
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3 Answers

As a native Spanish speaker, I would say that the most common mistakes are:

  • Phonetic: As there are no sounds like "ä", "ö" or "ü" in Spanish, Spanish speakers tend to pronounce them as "e", "o" and "u" respectively. There is also the difference between "sch", "ch", "tsch" and "s" at the beginning of some words which can cause some difficulties.
  • Grammar: In Spanish there are only two grammatical genders, so it is more difficult for us to learn the gender of nouns in German. We also have no declensions, so it is more difficult for us to adapt to those.

I hope this answers your question.

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I have learned German as a foreign language having a native language with three genders as well. Believe me, it is not easier to learn the correct gender of words in a foreign language even if your native language has the same number or even more genders than the language you are trying to learn :) –  jarnbjo Aug 16 '13 at 17:19
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Another difference is that "b" and "w" is very close in Spanish. So words such as "Badewanne" (bath tube) are often pronounced similiar to "Wadebanne".

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I don't know about Spanish, but I know many Italian people who speak German. Since Spanish and Italian are both Roman languages, the following problems mostly apply to Spanish too.


One problem they face is that some nouns have different genders, for example

la luna (fem.) → der Mond (masc.)
il sole (masc.) → die Sonne (fem.)


Another difficult area are the German cases. It's not easy to adopt a system that your own language misses. I often hear sentences like this one:

Ich habe das Geld die Verkäuferin gegeben. (wrong)

In Italian there's a prepositional phrase instead:

Ho dato i soldi alla commessa.


Also, pronunciation is difficult for Italians, because some German sounds and consonant combinations are not present in their native language: ch, ü, ...mpf... etc.

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