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What is the difference in meaning between these sentences?

Ich spreche die Deutsche nicht.
Ich spreche nicht die Deutsche.

Also:

Ich bin nicht der Lehrer.
Ich bin der Lehrer nicht.

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3 Answers 3

Well, the first two sentences are somehow wrong: it's either die deutsche Sprache or das Deutsch (but not die Deutsche, which means German woman). I would say (paradoxically)

Ich spreche kein Deutsch or Ich kann kein Deutsch.

For the second variant, with nicht, it sounds like something is missing.

Ich spreche nicht Deutsch, sondern Rumänisch.

As for the second sentence, first you must capitalize "lehrer". The first of the options sounds to my ears like something like in this example:

Ich bin nicht der Lehrer, sondern ein sehr alter Student.

while the second option sounds strange. Then

Ich bin kein Lehrer

is the right option.

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2  
Regarding "die deutsche" meaning "die deutsche Sprache", this is possible given the right context: "Welche Sprachen er wohl sprechen kann?" - "Die deutsche jedenfalls schonmal nicht." –  blutorange Oct 19 '13 at 22:28
1  
Well, then of course “die deutsche” can also mean “the german blood orange”. –  Carsten Schultz Oct 20 '13 at 12:15
    
Rather than "meaning", perhaps we should call this "referring (to)". What I meant to say was that this context is vital, without (special) context, it cannot refer to the German language: "Die deutsche ist schön." (Was?) –  blutorange Oct 20 '13 at 21:08
    
@c.p. "I would say (paradoxically) Ich spreche kein Deutsch" Why paradoxically? It's the content of the shortest German phrase book :-) –  divby0 Oct 22 '13 at 11:54
    
@divby0 because of kein :). –  c.p. Oct 22 '13 at 11:56

Sometimes still the negation can also be put at the end of a sentence, as was done in the episode "Suppen-Kaspar" of Struwwelpeter:

Ich esse keine Suppe! Nein!
Ich esse meine Suppe nicht!
Nein, meine Suppe ess’ ich nicht!

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Common Case

Ich bin nicht der Lehrer...

Emphasis either on nicht

... darum geht mich das nichts an.

or on Lehrer

... sondern der Schuldirektor.

First Word

Nicht ich bin der Lehrer...

emphsis on ich

... sondern Herr Patzke.

Wrong

Ich bin der Lehrer nicht.

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