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I’ve noticed that some verbs require an es as an object to be correct:

Ich lasse dich es wissen. (es wissen)

while other verbs do not:

Ich habe vor, nach Hause zu gehen. (not Ich habe es vor,...)

How do you know which verbs require or when it's needed to use an es in this manner, and when it's not.

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Good question, not so lucky examples... "Ich lasse dich wissen, wann ich komme" "Ich habe es vor." Those two do not behave any differently. – Emanuel Jan 10 '14 at 0:48
You really should chose different examples. I think people do not understand that you are trying to ask lists for "Ich genieße es, zu..." (es =good,optional) and "Ich versuche, zu... " (es = wrong). – Emanuel Jan 10 '14 at 10:45

In both cases, es is used as a placeholder for the actual object. It is rather not used without a proper context:

Sagst du mir Bescheid, wenn eine Entscheidung getroffen wurde?
Ich lasse es dich wissen. --> Ich lasse dich wissen, wenn eine Entscheidung getroffen wurde.

The same applies to the second example:

Gehst du gleich nach Hause?
Ich habe es vor. --> Ich habe vor, gleich nach Hause zu gehen.

Usually, you shorten it even further to

Habe ich vor.

The context reference is implicit, but would normally need to be present.

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I agree. It is the same as with contact clauses in the English language: At times you can omit a word, but it is never wrong to put it there. Also it sounds colloquial to omit it. – Mark Jan 10 '14 at 6:33
Bonus question: What about "Es regnet"? ;) – Em1 Jan 10 '14 at 9:21
I'd daresay this originates from Wasser regnet vom Himmel, which is then shortened to Es regnet --> Das Wasser – SentryRaven Jan 10 '14 at 9:28
I don't think that this answers the question. See my comment at the OP's question. – Emanuel Jan 10 '14 at 10:45

I think it depends on the verb.

Ich lasse dich es wissen

wissen requires almost always an object. In German you cannot let somebody know without actually saying what. Sometimes it can be omitted / is given implicitly

Weißt du, ...ich hatte mal ein ähnliches Erlebnis.
Er hat gestern angerufen. - Ich weiß. / Weiß ich. / Das weiß ich.
Wie Sie wissen, haben wir einen neuen Angestellten.

In the other example you'd either you es or the subclause

Ich habe vor, nach Hause zu gehen.
Ich habe es vor.

Es substitutes the subclause so you cannot put both together in one sentence.

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I think the original question is precisely when it's possible to put both together and when not, since undoubtedly in some case they can go together: "ich verdiene es, mehr Geld zu bekommen" – karoshi Mar 1 '14 at 20:17

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