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1

Maybe there's no fixed preposition in your sentence, because you don't know it. Some verbs tend to prefer to be in company of certain prepositions (which, again, highly depends on the context). By that I mean, that you even something need to learn the pairs ( preposition ,verb ). Don't forget to learn the case the preposition has.


2

Here there are two clauses. The main clause is: Ich weiß nicht and the subordinate clause is: wann der Zug abfährt. In first clause, Ich is the subject. The second clause is an altogether different sentence with its own subject. The subject of main clause is related with the action to know and the subordinate clause has has the subject der Zug, ...


1

Rules of thumb When forming German sentences as a native English speaker: Use hier for here and da for there. When targeting a high register, sometimes dort is better than da when it is emphasised. When there is any kind of doubt whether to use da or one of hier, dort, always prefer da. When making sense of German utterings as a native English speaker: ...


1

In addition to the previous answer, which takes care of the distinction of the three words with respect to each other, I though I'd add some detail to "da" being used synonymously with "here". I have seen "da" many times in contexts when I would have used "hier" That's an absolutely correct observation. Basically, "da" in colloquial speech, when ...


6

The sentence consists of two clauses, one main clause (ich weiß nicht) and one subordinate clause (wann der Zug abfährt), each having their own verb and their own subject. Complex sentences can consist of many clauses.



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