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Because "Dienstagabend" as a noun-noun compound is 100% a noun. The sentence is lacking an "am" which is and can be also said as "an dem" ("on the") and then you could use the article rule that with most of the cases, a noun or a nominalized word will follow somewhere that you'll have to capitalize. The one main exception would be superlatives of adjectives ...


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Capitalisation of some (not all!) words makes sentences easier to read quickly, for much the same reason that ascenders (as e.g. in t, l, h, k) and descenders (as e.g. in g, p, q, y) do the same. Capitalising all nouns leads to a nice percentage of capitalised words and therefore aids reading. I am not claiming that this is the reason we are doing this, but ...


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You are correct in observing that German is probably the only language to still capitalise common nouns. (Note the emphasis) First of all, this is because capitalisation can only happen in scripts such as Cyrillic, Greek or Latin which distinguish between capital and lower-case letters. Why they do that can probably be traced back to Charlemagne who let ...



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