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1

Aufs Energischste (sic!, modern spelling) does not contain an adverb/adjective anymore, it has been nominalised. Hence, replacing aufs with am would be wrong. And since Energischste is a noun by itself, there is no implicit noun required anywhere. Formerly, the orthography rules did not require capitalisation of these nominalised adjectives hence why it is ...


1

Remember that aufs is short for auf das with das the Artikel for energischeste (today we would say energischste and for all I know the new orthography drops the last s too). Secondly, energischeste is a noun here, so I'm not sure why it isn't capitalised. Your own examples show that it normally would be. Unless someone applied some new orthography rules to ...


3

These kind of second meanings words acquire often due to slang as your Italian example of finished meaning crazy seldomly translate literally from language to language. See for example German blau meaning drunk which gave rise to a number of idiomatic expressions (e.g. blau wie ein Veilchen, blue as a violet) but which does not literally translate into any ...


8

I have never heard that phrase used that way and meant to be offensive. It would typically be used as a question when inquiring if somebody is finished, for example, when wondering if you can take their plate. I have, however, seen the word "fertig" used in an offensive manner: Der Typ ist voll fertig. This would mean something like That guy is ...


4

There is a pretty much endless number of expressions that you could use here. What comes first to my mind as a general statement which always works would be something with (nicht) schaffen or (nicht) packen (see also redensarten-index). Ich werd’s wohl nicht schaffen. Ich pack das nie. Ich schaff es nicht rechtzeitig zum Bahnhof. You can, of ...



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