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I don't think that there is any song or poem to remember the case endings. However, I cannot be sure since to prove the absence of something is often much harder than to prove its existence. ;-) In the end the only mnemonic aid is a table similar to the one that E.V. posted in her/his answer. But: It isn't as hard as it looks at first glance. There are ...


Wenn der bestimmte Artikel der/die/das als Genusanzeiger fehlt, übernimmt das Adjektiv die Anzeige des Genus.


This is the way I did it. I used this summery and with time I practised, practised and practised. Making mistaked all the time and being corrected. I have no "easier" way to suggest


The Kafka cite is not a noun phrase. It is a participle construction with the past participle zugewendet. It can be replaced by a relative clause: Am Fester saß an einem Schreibtisch ein kleinerer Herr, der der Türe den Rücken zugewendet hat und der mit großen Folianten […] The grammatical case is directly derived from the ‘original’ relative clause ...

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