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15

In addition to the other answers I'd like to add that in the Duden Grammatik (the real, fat one) they say that new prepositions develop mainly from adverbs or other prepositional phrases. When a new preposition evolves the case it rules is often Genitive which then later changes to Dative or maybe even Accusative. Also, the prepositions tend to get ...


14

The preposition zwischen governs dative, not accusative, when describing a position. It is accusative for a movement: Sie stellt sich zwischen die Autos. Jetzt steht sie zwischen den Autos. This is the same for similar prepositions such as in, auf, über.


11

German is an indoeuropean language. The Proto-Indo-European language had 8 to 9 cases including the 4 cases still present in contemporary German. During the development of German out of Proto-Indo-European, the other 4 to 5 cases were dropped (cases merged, alternative constructions replaced case constructions, …)(Verweis). Old High German still had the ...


11

In that sentence it is not possible to differentiate the meaning of Sie. You need either a context or the possibility to see if Sie is capitalized because of the punctuation, or because of its meaning as "formal you". For instance: — Haben Sie meine Brieftasche gesehen? Ich habe die verloren. — Möglichkeit A: Ja, sie haben Ihre Brieftasche. ...


9

The phrase "silly me" is colloquial English. The German equivalent, "Bin ich dumm!", is colloquial, too (dict.cc). A more fitting translation would be "Ich Idiot" (or "Ich Schussel", like @Robert suggested), which would be a title you assign to yourself to indicate that you are indeed silly.


8

The traditional order (in German grammar) is this one: nominative genitive dative accusative If cases are referred to by number, then this will be the basis (i.e. “4. Fall” = “Wenfall” = accusative). The other order that you mention (with genitive and accusative swapped) follows the frequency of the cases in modern German. One should hope that textbooks ...


7

In German, definite time expressions that do not include prepositions use the accusative case. Nächste Woche mache ich das. I'll do that next week. Ich hätte die ganze Nacht tanzen können. I could have danced all night. Wir haben ihn letzten Dienstag gesehen. We saw him last Tuesday. Indefinite expressions use the genitive (eines Tages ...


7

I assume you are using these phrases in the context of placing an order. Schwarzen Kaffee, bitte! is a short form of Ich hätte gerne (einen) schwarzen Kaffee, bitte. Ich möchte (einen) schwarzen Kaffee, bitte. “Schwarzer kaffee, bitte!” could be used to tell the black coffee to behave. ;)


7

The predicate is not bare sein but groß sein or, more general, adjective sein. The element that is connected by the pure copula is in fact the adjective and not the measurement. There is no real logical reason for the measurement to be in accusative case. It could be Dative as well. But it answers the question "how?" so it must be in some case. "[Wie] ...


7

You might say: Ich halte dich für meinen älteren Bruder. A German will probably understand what you mean, but there are other words for expressing this, such as: Ich betrachte dich als meinen älteren Bruder. Du bist für mich wie ein älterer Bruder. The phrase etw. für etw. halten might be better used in sentences like the following: Er ...


7

Was für is an interrogative pronoun and synonymous with welcher, welche, welches and welch Duden It translates to "what [kind of]" or "what [a]" in English. The pronoun itself doesn't tell you anything about which case to use. You need to pick the one appropriate in the context. In your example, which is an exclamation, it's simply Nominative. If you ...


6

Time indications including nouns are often introduced using a preposition (in, an). If we are talking about a fixed point in time, the preposition will need Dative. There are many instances of time indications that don't have neither preposition nor article: Letzen Montag war ich schwimmen. Nächstes Jahr fahre ich in den Urlaub. Diese Woche ...


6

Well, yes. The possessive pronoun for the masculine case is indeed meiner. There are many tables on the Internet where you can look up the correct declension. Here's one of them. However, note that the examples on that page do not contain a common noun. In your example above, it's a possessive adjective, not a pronoun. There's not much difference; ...


6

Think of that as if the following steps were applied: 1 - ein Lehrer von deinen Lehrern Written like that it's a bit ambiguous, but bear with me. Read it as "one of your teachers", the more logical meaning, rather than "a teacher of your teachers". Now let's replace the "ein Lehrer" with the corresponding pronoun: 2 - einer von deinen Lehrern ...


5

Trying to emphasize the grammar background, I offer this answer: It is because the line is an answer to the question "What may I serve to you?" or "What do you want?". The reply is in the case accusative, answering "whom or what?", to which you reply "schwarzen Kaffee", while "schwarzer Kaffee" would be nominative, answering to "Who or what?". In ...


5

Rather than word order the grammatical case determines the subject or objcect of a sentence. Note the difference in meaning after we changed cases in the given example: Den Kindern (O) hat das Planetarium (S) Spaß gemacht. Die Kinder (S) haben im Planetarium (O) Spaß gemacht.


5

a) Den Kindern hat der Besuch im Planetarium Spaß gemacht. b) Der Besuch im Planetarium hat den Kindern Spaß gemacht. c) Spaß hat den Kindern der Besuch im Planetarium gemacht. 'Den Kindern' is in the dative case because, in the German sentence construction, 'the children' is the indirect object (a.k.a. dative object) of the verb 'Spaß machen'. The ...


5

Many location-related prepositions go with the Dativ when a state/position is expressed, but with the Akkusativ when related to a direction or movement. An is among them, in is also quite prominent. There is an interesting overview here (even although it is from an Austrian site!) (pdf). So when you express where to (or to whom) the letter should be sent, ...


5

"Es tut mir leid" can be translated as "It does hurt TO me." Es is the the subject, tut is the verb, and mir is the INDIRECT object, while "hurt" is the direct object. German uses quite of few of these indirect object constructions. "Mich," of course, is the direct object form but the German construction is NOT "It hurts me," (Subject verb direct object), ...


5

It'd be Einen Monat später bin ich nach Hause zurückgekommen because expressions that denote a length of or point in time use the accusative Ex Es hat den ganzen Tag geregnet. Ich sah ihn letzten Donnerstag. Ich war einen Monat in China.


5

Bei "Kommen Sie zu uns ins Büro" ist das "vorbei" falsch; das "zu" reicht. "Kommen Sie bei uns im Büro vorbei" ist korrekt (und umgangssprachlich). "Kommen Sie bei uns ins Büro" würde ich sagen, wenn ich einen Unterschied zwischen Räumen machen will: "Kommen Sie bei uns ins Büro, nicht bei Frau Xyz. Kommen Sie nicht in die Werkstatt." In jedem Fall ist ...


4

Appositions indeed agree in case with the phrase that they refer to. Thus, it should be: bei den Alliierten, den Vereinigten Staaten, der Sowjetunion, … This is very similar (up to one comma) to a list where den Vereinigten Staaten is the second item, unrelated to den Alliierten. To avoid misunderstandings, you would often introduce the apposition with ...


4

Just found on canoo.net's forum Fragen Sie Dr. Bopp: Die Reihenfolge Nominativ, Genitiv, Dativ, Akkusativ (NGDA) entspricht der klassischen, auf dem Lateinischen basierenden Grammatiktradition. Die Reihenfolge Nominativ, Akkusativ, Dativ, Genitiv (NADG) wird häufig in neueren Lehrwerken für die deutsche Sprache sowohl für Deutsch- als auch für ...


4

You are using to simple models, if you determine the case just by questions. And you have now found two points, where this model fails. Worüber? is just the question word associated to the preposition über. You can use it für Accusative or Dative cases: Worüber spricht er? Er spricht über den Weltfrieden. → Accusative (demanded by ...


4

These are prepositions requiring the dative. There is a mnemonic rhyme (dt.: Eselsbrücke) you can learn to keep them in mind: "Mit, nach, von, seit, aus, zu, bei verlangen stets Fall Nummer drei." More such stuff is for instance here. Examples: Er fuhr mit dem Bus. Nach dem Bus kam ein zweiter...


4

"Ich danke dir" = "I give thanks to you", not "I thank you". Maybe danke is acting like the accusative and the verb and dir is the dative. "Helfen Sie mir" = "You give help to me", not "You help me". Likewise, maybe helfen is acting like the accusative and the verb and mir is the dative. Ich = nominative danke = verb action and the sense of "giving a ...


4

Seems you just jot a bit confused and were on the right track... The subject of the second phrase is indeed "man" (impersonal). But the object is "his wife" and it is here that a dative is to be expected. And that is just what's there: Nom.: seine Frau Gen.: seiner Frau Dat.: seiner Frau Akk.: seine Frau On a sidenote: The passage you quoted ...


4

The sentence is semantically wrong. Let's split it up: Vor rund eineinhalb Jahren warst du eine andere Person. This is a point in time. You cannot insert something with seitdem as this word describe a range of time, or more precisely since a time in the past until now. But you can use, for instance, als becaus this word denotes again a specific point ...


4

"Die Arbeit" ist weiblich. Und es heißt "mit etwas fertig sein" oder "fertig mit etwas sein". Also heißt es Ich bin mit der Arbeit fertig. Ich bin fertig mit der Arbeit. Aktualisierung: Es gibt auch "etwas fertig [Partizip Perfekt eines Verbes] haben" Also ist Ich habe die Arbeit fertig [gemacht]. Es hat das Buch fertig [gelesen, ...


4

When you have a when-indication then it is neither "ein Morgen" nor "einen Morgen" but "eines Morgens" or "an einem Morgen". - Eines Morgens wachte Herr K. auf und fand, dass er ein käfer war. (Adapted from Kafka, The Metamorphosis). By the way, the word Morgen has different meanings: morgen, adverb, is the next day morgens, adverb, means in the morning ...



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