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16

There are several groups or occasions for fraktur: People who are enthusiastic about fraktur for its own sake. Enthusiast for a fitting epoch, e.g. 1920s enthusiasts. If you want something to look historically authentic, for example props for movies, theatre or roleplaying. If you want to give something an old, traditional or sometimes festive touch. Many ...


15

Das heutige Deutsch hat im Großen und Ganzen eine Stammform weniger als das Urgermanische und Althochdeutsche und auch z.B. als das moderne Isländische, das in dieser Hinsicht das ursprüngliche germanische Muster bewahrt (ich verwende es hier anstelle des Standardaltnordischen, das es genauso gut getan hätte). Im Isländischen sehen wir beispielsweise immer ...


14

The word Paar doesn't only mean two items but rather two items that are related to one another. The prime example is Mike und Jenny sind ein Paar. This notion also shows in compounds like Paartherapie, Paartanz or paarweise. The situation of using Paar as a qualifying noun is rather rare. The only example I can think of is this: Ein Paar Schuhe. ...


13

This is a temporary answer to give the community an opportunity to decipher the handwriting. Please feel free to edit this post whenever you feel you found out a missing word. Of course this should be followed by another answer giving the translation, and a guess on the temporal origin if possible. Vom Meiſter Huſſen dem Ketzer dz(?) der zu ͦ Coſtentz ...


11

First, of all, it looks as if Google digitalised the long s (ſ) as s most of the time. Then, one has to consider the following four variants of s-spelling. I distinguish between the case where a long s (ſ) is used (mostly blackletter fonts) and where it is not (mostly antiqua fonts): Heyse’s rules – ſs (ss) after short vowels: dass, müsst, ließ (antiqua); ...


8

To attack the premise of the question: What are the arguments for substituting ß with sz? A lot of things happened to German spelling since the appearance of the letter eszett. In particular, the aspects of German spelling due to which it made sense to use sz where we now use ß ¹ are long gone. So, while the eszett bears the letters s and z in name, this ...


8

Coincidence? If you look closer at the data, there is no noticeable decrease in the use of "gern", but a substantial peak in the usage of "gerne". If you go even further back with the statistics, you can also see that the usage pattern change again in the 18th and early 19th century. At least in 1946 and 1947, several reprints of books and material from ...


8

Der Weihnachtsmann, so wie wir ihn heute kennen, hat eine lange Vorgeschichte und wurde durch Personen, Sagen, Mythen, geschichtliche Ereignisse und auch Firmen geprägt. Der Ursprung des Weihnachtsmannes geht auf den legendären Bischof Nikolaus zurück, der im 4. Jahrhundert in der Stadt Myra in der heutigen Türkei lebte. Dieser Bischof wurde ...


7

While Emanuel's answer is right, it is lengthy. Simply put Ein Paar > a pair of Ein paar > a couple/few You then have to figure out the subtle differences, like for example Heute habe ich ein Paar Jeans gekauft Heute habe ich ein paar Jeans gekauft (Solution: Ein Paar Jeans = a pair of jeans = one piece, ein paar Jeans = more than one piece)


6

A research on books.google.com shows that something happened at the start of the last century. Look at the graphs, the word frequency in books changed around 1900-1905. Maybe it goes back to the "German Orthographic Conference of 1901"? That's only a guess. The Orthographic Conference of 1901 (also called the Berlin II Orthographic Conference) was a ...


5

Bach used a German spoken at his time (1685-1750) which is considered as Neuhochdeutsch but it is not spoken any more today. Nevertheless it is still understood. In addition to this a lot of changes to grammar and spelling were done for rhyming so that stanzas fit to the melody. Example: O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden, voll Schmerz und voller Hohn, ...


4

Die Schreibung von Schmied mit ie geht wohl laut Grimms Wörterbuch auf den Beginn des 19. Jahrhunderts zurück: "... die ursprüngliche kürze des stammvocals von schmied erscheint im früheren nhd. durchgehends gewahrt. Maaler 358a, Hulsius 286b, Schottel 1404, Stieler 1879 und Wachter 1443 bieten schmid, Frisch 2, 208a daneben auch schmied, das er für die ...


4

Religious verses in a language of around 1750. This language will hardly help you to read a novel, newspapers or to understand everday German.


4

If you read a capitalized text, you don't expect to substitute letters in your head: you just read the letters. If you see -SS-, you read it in the same way as -ß-: as a voiceless s [s]. If you see -SZ-, you read it as a combination of -s- and -z-: [sts]. So STRASZE wouldn't be read as it should and this confuses. The SS inSTRASSE is read in the same way ...


3

habe auf wikipedia folgendes gefunden: Borussia, Preußen Ein besonders häufiges Beispiel für einen Regionalbegriff im Vereinsnamen. Das Wort Borussia stammt aus dem Lateinischen und bedeutet Preußen. Oft deuten diese Namen darauf hin, dass die Vereine von preußischen Soldaten oder Polizisten gegründet wurden. Bei Borussia Dortmund ist dies jedoch ...


3

Ich zitiere aus http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rechtschreibreform ----- Beginn Zitat ----- Im deutschen Sprachraum fanden zwei orthografische Konferenzen statt, auf denen neben dem Ziel einer Vereinheitlichung der deutschen Orthografie auch weitergehende Reformvorschläge diskutiert wurden. In erster Linie führten sie zu der angestrebten Vereinheitlichung der ...


3

This is from comments: Without knowing an answer to your question I will say this.. the idea of "fixed" is not compatible with language. Language is ever changing. I think your teacher just didn't want to admit that she didn't really know what to say. The process of regular words developing into function words is called grammaticalization. It's often ...


3

According to the German Wikipedia, the spelling reform of 1901 changed the spelling of a number of city names (but not all) from C to K, such as Kassel or Köln, but not Coburg or Cottbus. The article does not explicitly refer to the name Köpenick.


2

The obvious similarity in the frequency of spelling ss or ß at the end of a word can be nailed down to the reforms of the orthography which took place in 1901 (II. Orthographische Konferenz), and in 1996 (Reform der deutschen Rechtschreibung). In the conference in 1901 it was decided to spell according to Adelung (i.e. spelling the sharp 's' at the end of a ...


2

This is not restricted to s, it also happens for p, t, k, f resp. b, d, g, w (and I think v needs extra rules in the first place). The Wikipedia article states the rules between this switch between the lenis/fortis-variants in detail, and says this is a "typical phenomenon in German". To make things even more confusing, it works differently in different ...


1

In Standard High German (other than some southern dialects of German) [z] (voiced alveolar fricative) is an allophone of [s] (voiceless alveolar fricative) when it occurs in the onset of a syllable, that is you will never find a [s] in the beginning of a (phonological) word. Since this is a universal phonological „rule“ it is not necessary to encode this in ...


1

It happens when the letter 's' comes before a vowel except at the end of the word. And of course the double 's' is also pronounced like the English 's'.


1

Lacking the distinction between lower and upper case spelling in a spoken conversation, I guess most people would instead indicate the difference using emphasis: Ich hätte gern ein Paar Socken. Ich hätte gern ein paar Socken. If you emphasize the number, by melody and also by introducing a short pause after it, you stress the fact that you are speaking ...


1

Strictly speaking "Fraktur" only refers to one of several Blackletter typefaces (called "gebrochene Schriften", broken fonts, in German). They are still used for street signs in some places or the occasional logo, masthead or headline, but apart from that have no place in contemporary German typography. Most younger people find it difficult to read (it's ...


1

Das hat nichts mit Deutschland oder Deutsch zu tun. Deshalb wirst du dir auch leichter tun, wenn du weiter rauf nach Skandinavien schaust. Die englische Wikipedia hat mich auf Sinterklaas gebracht, der der Ursprung zu sein scheint. Das geht weiter als nur in das 17. Jahrhundert zurück. Allerdings ist der Weihnachtsmann in manchen Ländern, z.B. Österreich, ...


1

I can only speculate about the questions 1-3, but I think that I can answer you last question concerning the "miracle" of the almost identical curves. If I am getting this right, Google Books is scanning all its books for these words and the plots show the ratio of their occurrence. Now if grammar allows two different forms - in this case ss and ß - , an ...



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