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25

Willkürlich has two different meanings: bewusst, vom eigenen Willen gesteuert (voluntary, deliberately) This one is the exact opposite of unwillkürlich (involuntary). The second meaning, auf Willkür beruhend (arbitrary) is rather different, because the word "Willkür" has shifted in meaning over the years. It used to mean doing something of your ...


23

In each case you conjugate the verb differently. Here the verb is sein meaning to be. Sie ist schlecht. She is bad. Sie sind schlecht. They are bad. Although to add to the confusion here, there is yet another pronoun Sie meaning you in the plural or polite form. In the middle of a sentence you can see that it is capitalized but in ...


23

Augenmaß has two meanings, here the second fits: Fähigkeit, in angemessener Weise zu handeln; Besonnenheit, Umsicht Beispiele das rechte Augenmaß verloren haben Politik mit Augenmaß (Besonnenheit, Realitätssinn) So a very rough translation would be "Responsibility and a sense of good judgement/appropriateness"


21

It is a play on words. Zurück in die Zukunft is the German title of a popular movie series (Back to the future). I guess they replaced f with s to mix in the word Kunst (art). What this might mean is left to the reader’s interpretation … Edit: Thinking about it, I wonder whether it is intentional or purely coincidental that in old blackletter fonts the s ...


20

"krass" is actually not such a new word as it's modern slang usage suggests. It is a loanword from Latin "crassus". In general usage "krass" is used for extremes in either a positive or mostly a negative connotation: Diese Aussage steht in krassem Gegensatz zu seiner sonstigen Einstellung. Dies war ein besonders krasser Fall von Betrug. From the ...


18

"halb links"/"halb rechts" means that you need to turn left or right, but at an angle of less than 90°. I'd say "halb rechts" is roughly between 20° to 60°. The angles I provide assume that 0° is straight ahead: you deviate 0° from the straight line. For example, if you come towards a fork in the road with one road going (almost) straight ahead and another ...


18

spenden is mostly used in the sense of to donate So, you would say something like: Last year I donated 200€ to charity. Which is Letztes Jahr habe ich 200€ für wohltätige Zwecke gespendet. Whereas spendieren means something like to spend on / to pop for / to treat sb. to sth. So, to answer your last question: I would not use ...


18

Sprach-Varietäten Ebenso wenig wie es nicht eine einzige englische Sprache gibt, gibt es auch nicht eine einzige deutsche Sprache. Bei der englischen Sprache unterscheidet man zwei große Standardvarietäten, nämlich "British English" und "American English". Die deutsche Sprache kennt drei Standardvarietäten: deutsches Deutsch österreichisches Deutsch ...


18

Möhre here refers to the old computer. Generally, any piece of equipment that is outdated (not in a nostalgic way) and often already insufficient can be referred to as a Möhre. The word is short for Mohrrübe (carrot). Gurke (cucumber) can be used in just the same way.


17

Wechsel von offenen Geleiseschottern mit Vegetationsflächen unterschiedlicher Wuchsdichte in den ehemaligen Bereichen zwischen den Geleisen. I bolded the two relevant words. Wechsel does indeed also mean change and shift, but it is alternation that is meant here. The terrain alternates between remaining ballast areas and vegetation of different densities. ...


17

First of all, as a native German I never heard of "Dummerchen" as sausage! I bet that no one would understand it in that way. "Dummerchen" is a minimization of a stupid person and always understood in a friendly way. A person calling you a "Dummerchen" is definitely favorable/benevolent towards you (like friends or family members) and not meant offensive. ...


16

"Müssen" in German can also imply direction - the usage you are expecting is as auxiliary verb, like "können", "dürfen", "sollen": Etwas tun müssen Gehen müssen But you may use it without any verb to suggest movement without specifying the form (going, driving, flying, whatever) because it is important to be there, not how you got there. Ich muss ...


16

Das Zitat stammt aus dem E-Mail-Roman »Gut gegen Nordwind« vom österreichischen Autor Daniel Glattauer aus dem Jahr 2006. Der Roman wurde mittlerweile schon in mehr als 40 verschiedenen Theatern als Bühnenstück aufgeführt. Eine Aufführung in den Wiener Kammerspielen aus dem Jahr 2010 wurde auch im Fernsehen bereits mehrfach ausgestrahlt (ORF, 3Sat, ARD). ...


16

Without a doubt that means "100 Euro (including 10 Euro fees)", i.e. the amount asked for is 100=90+10. (I am a native German speaker and a businessman.)


15

Interessanter Satz. (a) und (b) sind beide möglich, aber (a) ist viel wahrscheinlicher. Man müßte viel prosodische Arbeit leisten, um einem Hörer verläßlich den Sinn (b) zu vermitteln. Selbst die schriftliche Variante (mit Komma vor 'zu') wirkt unüblich.


15

The word »alles« means »everything«. You are asked to tell everything that Sylvie does. You are not asked what Sylvie is doing in a special situation, or at a special moment. You are asked what Sylvie does generally. In her whole live, all day long. The word »alles« is used in similar Questions: Was können Sie alles? Here you are encouraged to tell ...


15

noch nicht = not yet in all cases applicable.


14

english "to stop" is in german "anhalten" (The server stopped - Der Server hielt an), but in context of a server I would prefere "ausfallen" (Der Server fiel aus). Identify the server by its name: english: The server mail.example.org stopped. german: Der Server mail.example.org fiel aus. No prepositions needed. Identify the server by its place: ...


13

Etymologically, both words have the same root while spendieren is just an extension of spenden by adding the suffix -ieren to the root. spendieren Vb. ‘großzügig (und reichlich) ausgeben, freihalten’ (17. Jh.), Weiterbildung zu spenden mit dem Verbalsuffix -ieren; vgl. mnd. spendēren, nl. spenderen. (DWDS) However, both means (ver)schenken but they are ...


13

The phrase “A ist noch nicht B” can mean that A does not necessarily imply B, that it is not enough to have A for to also have B. Looking at the context, the journalist apparently wanted to say that the mere presence of futuristic skyscrapers [in Moscow] is not sufficient to say that Russia is turning to Europe. He did so in reply to a statement in which Mr....


12

In German "Weichspüler" is a fabric conditioner. In TV commercials they always have a very smooth and soft music to underline the softness of fabric after being treated with their product. Here is an example for this. Whenever people refer to "Weichspülmusik" they mean this kind of mainstream but very soft music. Another saying for similar music is "...


12

You use alle for "15 minutes" because "minutes" is plural. You would use jede for singulars, like jede halbe Stunde. You could not use them vice-versa.


12

"Krass" as a slang term can mean many different things from "cool" over "that's odd" to "what a pity". It depends on the situation. Colloquially it's an all purpose adjective, mainly used by young people. For emphasizing you can use it together with "voll". Examples: "Gestern ist meine Mutter gestorben." (Yesterday my mother died.) "Krass. Tut mir ...


12

The trick that leads us to understand the logic of "beziehungsweise" is knowing that the first part is not derived from the verb "beziehen" (to refer to) but from the noun "Beziehung". If we translate "Beziehung" with "respect" then building an adverb with the suffix "-weise" follows a similar logic in English, and in German: English: Respect -> ...


12

Das Problem bei einer solchen Frage ist genau genommen, dass sowohl „Ja“ als auch „Nein“ dasselbe Resultat hat. A: Darf ich das nicht? B1: Ja genau, du darfst es nicht. B2: Nein, du darfst es nicht. Die positive Antwort wäre mit „Doch“ zu beantworten. Grundsätzlich besteht das Problem auch in anderen Sprachen, auch Englisch, wo aber “Yes” ...


12

The word does not exist. I hear ”Flügeschlagen“, but that does not make any sense either. The point seems to be that it is a word that sounds German to them American audience, but that they do not understand. A made-up word works fine for that. Few American audience members will be confident enough in their German to be sure that the word does not exist. ...


12

The expression ein teures/gefährliches/heisses/... Pflaster comes from former times, when only city roads had cobblestone (Pflastersteine) pavements and thus refers to city roads, therefore - the city, or a place in a city. It should be mentioned this only works in a number of idioms as above: Ein historisches Pflaster to describe a historic city ...


11

There's almost no difference, both verbs can be replaced by each other without a significant difference in meaning in most cases. So usually it isn't a mistake to use prüfen instead of überprüfen and vice versa. To narrow down the slight difference: I would prefer überprüfen to prüfen if it's about verifying or double-checking a certain fact. However, if ...


11

Laut Wikipedia stammt die Wendung aus dem zweiten Weltkrieg und steht für die gegnerische Seite. In der Landsersprache wurden gegnerische Soldaten scherzhaft als "Kollegen von der anderen Feldpostnummer" bezeichnet. einem Google-Überblick über die ersten paar Seiten zufolge wird sie heutzutage von Weltkriegs-Nostalgikern, im Wehrsport, auffällig ...


11

By using the suffix "-gerecht" we can build an adjective from a noun to expresses that something meets criteria for defined usage ("Etwas wird seiner Sache gerecht"). In a technical context from cast iron I would translate "Beanspruchung" with strain. Thus "Beanspruchungsgerecht" would translate to something like: "to meet requirements for strain"



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