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11

There are two ways: Use the same pronouns as for the third person and also use the third person for the relative clause’s verb: Ich, der/die rote Haare hat, bin 25 Jahre alt. Du, der/die rote Haare hat, bist 25 Jahre alt. Wir, die rote Haare haben, sind 25 Jahre alt. Ihr, die rote Haare haben, seid 25 Jahre alt. This is rather unusual for the ...


9

There are two subtle differences: alle vs. jeder: alle is referring to the set as a whole. jeder is referring to every member of the set. In most cases, this is equivalent, but not always: Jeder muss ein Boot bauen, um von der Insel zu flüchten. -> Everybody has to have his own boat. Alle müssen ein Boot bauen, um von der Insel zu flüchten. -> There ...


6

The article-like forms look like articles but are in fact demonstrative pronouns. Apparantly, they also have a second name deictic pronouns, because they are usually used when pointing at someone/something (Greek δεῖξις, pointing). Which leads us directly to their usage: the use of der in the example is both adding emphasis and implicitly pointing at the ...


5

The first pair of examples should be transformed to: Der Mann war 25 Jahre alt und war noch nie im Ausland (gewesen). Der Mann, der noch nie im Ausland gewesen war, war 25 Jahre alt. If you want to use a subordinate clause, it is much better to embed it into the main clause because only then the two statements get their proper weight and emphasis ...


4

This is very close to the "pluralis majestatis" and is very common in this genre (medieval/fantasy). And yes, it is also common for literature, especially older work. It is a substitute for the polite salutation "Sie". It can easily be formed, as you simply express yourself as if you would talk to more than one person. "Es gehört Ihnen." → "Es ...


4

Because it must be female singular. Check the first sentence: Die Generalität ist ein Geschmeiß des deutschen Volkes! Subject here is "die Generalität", it's female singular. Now on to sentence two: Sie ist ohne Ehre! As "sie ist" is female singular, too, it must refer to "die Generalität" from the preceding sentence. If you would refer to ...


3

Personal pronouns are ambiguous Like in English there is no rule to whom a personal pronoun refers to. So the example sentence where the genders are the same Der Mann jagt den Hund. Er fällt in ein Loch. it is highly ambiguous. It is the man, or the dog who may have fallen into the pit - we can't say who. Gender matters It would be easy to resolve ...


3

It's called Höflichkeitsform, Honorificum or Honorativ(um). "Ihr" was replaced by "Sie" in the 19th and 20th century. It sounds more formal and historically authentic so it is often used in medieval or fantastic fiction. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/H%C3%B6flichkeitsform


2

The problem with hypothetical questions like this is that, by themselves, these sentences don't convey much meaning and don't truly stand alone. If they're the response to a question like: Wie sollen wir den Hund fangen? ...or a precursor to more information, such as: Seine Tochter hat sein Gips bemalt. ...then the meaning is clear from context. ...


1

I once got told, that it always refers to the last mentioned, this would be the dog. But you really should not write like that.


1

In harsh words: There's only a barely discernible difference. In general, it doesn't matter which word you use, you equally refer to any, all, every and each object of the group (whatever the group is). While I was sure that there's no difference at all, Toscho just posted an example where "alle" may convey a different meaning than "jeder". While "Jeder ...


1

Keiner/Niemand and Jeder/Alle are often used synonymously. Although there is a little difference: Keiner/Jeder are used for a specific group/selection (e.g. your family), while Niemand/Alle imply a more general statement. "Keiner würde das sagen" -> no one I know would say that, but there might be someone who would or "Jeder würde das sagen" -> everyone I ...


1

Personal pronouns like proper nouns follow the same inflection rules, as is nicely summarized in a table here: canoonet: Personal Pronouns The polite form in adressing people actually is the 3rd person form capitalized. The same inflection rules apply. Now we have to learn by heart which grammatical case goes with any verb. There are no generally valid ...



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