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16

The prefix "er" is mostly used for a process that will cause a certain state. This states might be finite (for example, "ertrinken" and "erstechen" as well als "erschießen" will leave you dead...) or momentary. Some examples for verbs that describe a process leading to a finite state: erhalten - becoming owner of something erstellen - building something ...


12

Both relate to hoch, although not quite literally. A wedding is a high time, a time of great joy; and Hochmut is a high (nowadays usually: too high) self-esteem. Mut means courage, but there is a older meaning (cf. Gemüt) that can be translated as frame of mind.


12

Grimms Wörterbuch says this: g) von geschmuggelten waaren sagt man: schwarz herein (über die grenze) kommen, vielleicht weil man bei nacht zu schmuggeln pflegt (vgl. DWB schwärze, 'nacht' in der gaunersprache, s. dies), so dasz schwarz hier gewissermaszen prädicativisch im sinne von 'dunkel, in der dunkelheit' stände, oder weil die schmuggler sich das ...


10

If you ask me, this is a terrible test, which does not help you to learn German. It is nice to know, what the prefix "ver" means and how it changes the meaning of words. If you want to know that, you can have a look at the Duden entry or Takkat's answer in the other question. But this knowledge does not help you to understand the meaning. You do not take ...


9

"Über" has roughly the same meaning as the English word "over", but some uses are more metaphorical than others: Übertragung (transmission): literally translates to "carrying it over". Überlegung (thought): thinking it over. Überbevölkerung: overpopulation. Übergenau: overly precise. Überglücklich: overly happy. For some reason, English speakers loaned ...


9

It is not so much inappropriate, but it sounds pretty cheap. "Saustark" and "saugut" are the most common forms to use "Sau-". In some commercial contexts you can hear "saugünstig". The forms where it isn't appropriate are "saudoof", "saudumm" and other combinations... where it is used to say "dumb like a pig".


9

The aggravating prefix "sau-" is considered as colloquial the most. You would not use it in other than a family or friends setting. According to Duden it is classified as rather strong ("derb") when used with a negative connotation. Therefore in most situations I recommend not to use it


9

As a rule, prefixes of separable verbs are words that can stand alone. You will find many prepositions among them. Here, I think you misunderstood how exactly the veb "zumachen" works. "Zu" is -- among other meanings -- the German word for "closed". Unlike the English "closed", however, it is not the present perfect form of the word for "to close", ...


9

Yes. It's actually a rhetorical device named Zeugma. A few examples: Er trat die Tür ein und den Rückweg an. Ich heiße nicht nur Heinz Erhardt, sondern Sie auch herzlich willkommen. Ich fror vor mich hin, denn nicht nur meine Mutter, auch der Ofen war ausgegangen.


8

In case of a letter that may be a little too harsh or strongly worded there is a German equivalent: In seinem Schreiben übte er scharfe Kritik an den gestrigen Beschlüssen. Therefore a quite common verb for "tone down" or "softening" of a message would be: "Können Sie Ihr Schreiben bitte ein wenig entschärfen?" In case of a single argument we may ...


8

A pretty good rule of thumb is whether the word to be negated is a Fremdwort or not. Latin words are inverted with in-, Greek words are negated with a-, while typical German words are inverted with un-. Examples: Inexakt, indiskutabel, inakzeptabel, invariant, inoperabel ungenau, unmöglich, unwohnlich, unbehaglich, unversehrt, unverletzt, unbeschädigt, ...


8

There is a most conclusive article on the etymology and usage of the prefix "ver-" in the "Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Deutschen (nach Pfeifer)": ver- Präfix bei Verben und zugehörigen Nomina [...]. Die Funktionen von ver- im Nhd. sind vielfältig; vor allem kennzeichnet es ein Beseitigen, Wegschaffen, Aufbrauchen (verrücken, ...


8

Prefixation is a common way to change or further precise verb meanings. According to this nice summary at Canoon.net we have separable prefixes: verb and prefix are separated on inflection. ab, an, auf, aus, bei, dar, ein, fehl, für, inne, los, nach, rück, vor, wieder, zu, zurecht, zwischen inseparable prefixes: verb and prefix are not separated. be, ...


8

Aus dem Grimm: 11) mord in zusammensetzungen, als schelte für etwas äuszerst böses oder schlimmes, vergl. mordmähre, mordracker, mordschlag 2; sodann in verstärkungen, selbst derb lobenden, der volksmäszigen sprache, vgl. mordbrav, mordkerl, mordmäszig u. a., an den begriff des frevelhaften anknüpfend, wie ähnlich sündlich, verflucht gebraucht werden, ...


8

Im Deutschen Wörterbuch von Jacob und Wilhelm Grimm finden sich noch folgende Bedeutungen UNTERGEBEN, v.: a) in obhut, pflege geben b) unterordnen c) im kartenspiel eine niedrigere karte zugeben d) veraltet als besitz oder eigenthum hingeben


8

fehlen and empfehlen do not derive from the same base (fehlen). The verb fehlen derives from the old form vælen or vēlen, which means to miss (a target). Empfehlen on the other hand derives from the verb fel(a)han, which means to sow or to entrust. finden and empfinden do derive from finden, that's why they share the same conjugation.


8

We may get a clue on the purpose of the prefix er-, frequentliy used for conversion of verb-to-verb, noun-to-verb, or adjective-to-verb, when we look at the etymology or "er-" (loose translation by me): The prefix er- is derived from a tonal weakening of the Old High German prefixes ur-, ar-, ir-, and er-, which mostly turned to er- in Middle High ...


8

Duden online gibt hier die Lösung unter der Rubrik Grammatik: unregelmäßiges Verb; erkennt an/(besonders schweizerisch:) anerkennt, erkannte an/(besonders schweizerisch:) anerkannte, hat anerkannt Die zusammengesetzte Form ist demnach also die schweizerische Variante. Es gibt sie schon sehr lange. In Analogie zu auferstehen ist sie wahrscheinlich als ...


8

A dictionary providing all forms of prefixes to a given verb with appropriate translations will lead to rather lengthy lists because there are so many. Let me therefore suggest the following approach which will give you a concise list of most if not all prefixed verb forms. Search for wordformation of a given verb in canoonet From the huge list of form ...


7

Google kennt neben einem ersten Auftreten um 1650 das Wort ab 1750. Ab 1850 scheint es 'auszusterben'. ngram zu untergeben/Untergebener


7

I don't think those words really exist in German. At least I couldn't find them on duden.de. ;-) The only context I found them (both) via Google was with CVs. So I guess its an Anglicism that came to Germany with the American style CVs recently. ;) OregonGhost posted the correct translations in his comment. However, "antichronologisch" sounds wronger to my ...


7

They are both correct, but have different meanings. The a-word construction indicates a lack of word, whereas the anti-word construction indicates something against word. In your example, something which is "achronological" is something without a time-based order. For example, I could say my notebook is achronological, as I write on random pages on random ...


7

Die Vorsilbe ent- wird in einigen Fällen vor f zu emp- angeglichen. ent- hat den gleichen indoeuropäischen Ursprung wie Griechisch "anti-" und Latein "ante". Du findest eine recht ausführliche Erklärung der Vorsilbe "ent-" aus dem Duden Universalwörterbuch hier. Wie bei vielen anderen Vorsilben hat "ent-" so viele Bedeutungen, dass es kaum möglich ist aus ...


7

I would use abmildern: You could say Bitte mildere den Brief etwas ab or Du könntest den Brief abmildern. You may also use abschwächen. If the letter was very rude, you may also say Bitte mäßige dich im Ton. This would be a not so friendly and crude remark.


7

In this special case (opened or closed doors, windows, etc.) this is rather common, though colloquial, as is zumachen itself. What happens here, is that zu has been made a predicative adjective or adverb (depending on your approach to word classes) – the same may happen to auf. You can even find constructions like eine zue Tür (a closed door; pronunciation: ...


7

Yes, this one way to express the superlative. Duden calls it umgangssprachlich emotional verstärkend. It doesn't work with all adjectives, but there are a handful: topgesetzt, topgepflegt, topqualifiziert. Again, Duden has more. It can be used with nouns as well: Der Teilnehmer erzielte eine Top-Platzierung in der Wertung. Das Büro befindet sich in ...


6

"Canis" is Latin and means "dog". "Canina" (also Latin) means "general/common". I do not know why the Romans derived "general" from "dog", maybe because dogs are roaming and can be found everywhere, but they did. You can see the usage in words like "Hunds-Rose (Rosa canina)". It's named that way, because it can be found everywhere. And things which can be ...


6

Für stocksteif hast du recht. Steif sein wie ein Stock (GRIMM) Im Falle von stockfinster bezieht sich stock auf Stockhaus stockfinster, adj. überaus finster, so dasz man keine hand vor augen sehen kann; eigentlich so finster, wie es im stock (4 f) stockhaus, gefängnisz ist; stockfinster wie im tiefsten gefängnisz, [...] (GRIMM) Wie dort aber ...



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