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Just in addition to tofro's answer: The second options are slightly more unusual ("markiert" as German linguists say) and also a little more elegant (at least in group B), as the stresses follow a certain rhythm (stresses in bold): ... doch misslang es immer wieder vs. ... doch es misslang immer wieder. With two stresses in a row, the speaker even has to ...


4

In your specific examples, there is neither a difference in style nor in what the sentences express. They are pretty much equivalent. Changing word order in German can be used to put emphasis on certain parts of the sentence, but it doesn't necessarily need to (especially if the parts of the sentence being emphasized align perfectly with the general ...


5

Generally speaking, both das and es can be used to refer to concepts that have been mentioned before (backward reference or anaphoric reference) or that will be mentioned shortly (forward reference or cataphoric reference). There are, however, a number of restrictions regarding which can be used for what. In a forward reference, das can only be used to ...


2

"Es" is being used since the expression "[direct object] für vorteilhaft halten" needs a direct object. In this case the direct object "es" refers to the idea or plan "Ihnen eine ausdrückliche Antwort zukommen zu lassen" and not the previously mentioned question or fact. If "das" would be chosen, the sentence would make no sense anymore, since it would then ...


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You need to use "es", because this personal pronoun is a representative for the following subclause ("Ihnen eine ausdrückliche Antwort zukommen zu lassen"), whereas "das" would be used to replace this subclause. Use "es" if a subclause is to be included in the sentence. This is very well illustrated by the first subclause ("daß das richtig sein mag"). The ...


1

It is not a relative pronoun, but a demonstrative pronoun, referring forward to the infinitive construction: tired of seeing. Replacing it with the personal pronoun seiner would render the sentence ungrammatical because the infinitive no longer would be connected to the rest; it would also change the meaning, as K. then would be tired of some previously ...


3

[einer Sache] müde sein is an expression used to say "to be tired of [something]". Note that "einer Sache" is in the genitive form. So dessen is the genitive of das = "the thing he was tired of". In this case, that's the fact that Miss Montag kept staring at his lips.


7

In your example sentences, the article "der" is used as a demonstrative pronoun and generally replaces "jener" or "dieser" when used that way (this is common speech). And yes, these sentences are still correct if you use "er".



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