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10

Basically, the rule you read was incomplete. It's pronounced as sht (from now on / Ét/) if the cluster is at the start of a syllable. Some examples: entstehen Strom still Just like any other rule in the German language, there are exceptions. I picked still previously on purpose to show that orthography is not always to be trusted. Mostly because of ...


6

No, these words are not exceptions. The phenomenon you are observing is quite common. The rule that you are quoting holds also when words are composed or used with a prefix: ver-stehen (prefix "ver", base word "stehen"), Ein-stein (it's a name anyway, but same principle), aus-steigen, Fahr-stuhl (composition of "fahren" and "Stuhl") and so on.


2

At first: there are some German dialects (in the hanseatic region), where st and sp is not pronounced sht and shp respectively but at face value. I agree with clinch, that in most cases and most regions, it is pronounced sht and shp. Unfortunately there are exceptions, especially at the end of a word (Last, Lust, Mast, fast, List), if the s is doubled to ...



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