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17

Somewhere in the transition from Middle High German to New High German, the clusters [sk], [st] and [sp] became [ʃ], [ʃt] and [ʃp], respectively, when they were in the onset of a syllable. So, in German words "st" and "sp" are pronounced [ʃt] and [ʃp] only when they occur at the beginning of a syllable. In "Einstein", this is the case; in "Kunst" it is not. ...


15

Assuming that the spelling was unchanged upon immigration to the US, the pronunciation would be Fah-nel (IPA: [ˈfaːnəl]), with the ah pronounced like the sound your doctor asks you to make at a check up. That said, Fahnel isn’t an extremely common German name, and it’s very possible that your ancestors left Germany as Fähnels, and then had their name ...


14

It's actually nix It's slang for nichts, as you have guessed. I'd love to say something more but, first, I'd like to understand what is "good to use" (obviously, don't write nix it in a formal context!), and, secondly, I'm not an expert. Whence I'm pretty sure somebody will illuminate us with a better answer.


13

I never heard Germans (including myself) pronounce it other than eye-tee. I also think that this is the correct way to pronounce it since Information Technology is an English term and therefore should be pronounced English, not German. However if IT would refer to Informationstechnologie it is a German word and should be pronounced German. Though ...


12

Nix is, as was already pointed out, a colloquial, informal, shorter form of nichts. Nix does not derive from any specific dialect; rather it is present in one form or another in most dialects. There are rare exceptions like the Berlin dialect prefering nüscht It is okay to use in very informal writings, like text messages to friends or in a chat etc. Do ...


11

Rule: In German, every rule has an exception. In reality, rules are an oversimplified information, valid for a certain amount of time, to describe language. One tries to derive rules to organize properties of languages, but being a language as complicated as it is, one usually fails in encompassing all the cases. I think you have to be glad there is a ...


10

Basically, the rule you read was incomplete. It's pronounced as sht (from now on /ʃt/) if the cluster is at the start of a syllable. Some examples: entstehen Strom still Just like any other rule in the German language, there are exceptions. I picked still previously on purpose to show that orthography is not always to be trusted. Mostly because of ...


9

First, note please that there is no "conjugation of würden": wird, würd(e), werden and würden are all forms of the same verb, werden. The forms with ü are past subjunctive/Konjunktiv II forms which are derived from the past tense of werden which is er wurde/sie wurden. Although this subjunctive/Konjunktiv is derived from a past tense, its meaning is present. ...


7

Since I don't know how to use your "uh" and "ah"-system and in this issue sounds are included that do not occur in English, I will use IPA symbols for my answer: der is pronounced [deːɐ̯] according to Wiktionary. However, my personal (rather southern) pronunciation is [dɛɐ̯]. As far as I know, the [e]-sound is not widely used in English and native English ...


7

b, d, and g are pronounced like p, t, and k, if they occur at the end of a syllable. This effect is known as final-obstruent devoicing, or in German, Auslautverhärtung. Since Tage is split into syllables like Ta-ge, the g is not at the end of a syllable, so it is not pronounced as k.


7

The pronunciation you heard for both Dostojewski and Gouda are the ones every German would reproduce. I would blame school subjects, mostly. While everyone gets taught English and many people French, which also means that there is a critical mass of speakers of those languages that everyone will have heard the correct pronunciation, Russian and Dutch are ...


6

Ä There's no obvious difference in pronouncing Ärzte or Ärmel. As for ätzend, the ä is slightly more "e-like" than the usual ä, as it is a short vowel. Ä is close in pronunciation to the a in that or cap - an a pronounced more "e-like". Ö Is pronounced like the u in purse or the e in Perth. EDIT: It is possible to practice the ö by forming an o with your ...


6

No, these words are not exceptions. The phenomenon you are observing is quite common. The rule that you are quoting holds also when words are composed or used with a prefix: ver-stehen (prefix "ver", base word "stehen"), Ein-stein (it's a name anyway, but same principle), aus-steigen, Fahr-stuhl (composition of "fahren" and "Stuhl") and so on.


6

Short answer No they are not supposed to sound the same. Your linked video should make this clear at the 3:48 mark. Depending on the position and following characters the [i:] often rolls into an [e:] sound (especially in your example Ihr). Perhaps you can concentrate more on the start of the sound and use other examples such as "viel wenig" Long answer ...


5

Ich glaube nicht, dass es so ein Minimalpaar gibt. Das liegt daran, dass - wie ich glaube - [χ] und [ç] Allophone desselben deutschen Phonems sind. Ob [χ] oder [ç] gesprochen wird, hängt von dem Vokal vor dem Frikativ ab, bzw davon, ob davor überhaupt ein Vokal steht oder nicht. Meiner Beobachtung nach ist es so, dass bei einem bestimmten Wort [χ] bzw. [ç] ...


5

As a general rule, "st" is usually pronounced [ʃt] at the beginning of a syllable and [st] in the middle or the end. This is analogously true for "sp" The "sp" in "Erkenntnisproblem" is not a real "sp", as this is a compound noun ("Erkenntnis-Problem"). Remark: this is not true in the southwest of Germany, where "st"/"sp" are always pronounced [ʃt]/[ʃp], ...


5

Laut Duden Online ist die Herkunft lat. tragicomedia. Insofern ist es also wirklich "Tragikomödie" und Tragik'Komödie wäre mithin als Aussprache falsch. Klingt auch sehr holprig.


5

Ich hoffe, dass es in Ordnung ist wenn ich auf Deutsch antworte. Es ist meine Muttersprache, und darin kann ich mich besser ausdrücken als auf Englisch. Auf Anfrage übersetzte ich meine Antwort jedoch auch gerne ins Englische. Die Beobachtung, dass Deutschsprachige generell dazu tendieren, Wörter bestimmter Sprachen (Englisch, Französisch) wie in der ...


4

Your examples are directly derived from ancient greek, where the corresponding letter Ξ was pronounced the same way and still is in modern Greek, if I may trust wikipedia. X is always pronounced /ks/ in German, no matter, where in the word, the x- special case directly linked to alphabet enumeration. You did not mention, why you mistrust the dictionaries, ...


4

Drei Vorschläge, allerdings jeweils ziemlich "herbeikonstruiert" mit Deiner Idee des Diminutivs "-chen": die Stadt Aachen und Achen als Diminutiv zu A tauchen und Tauchen Kuchen und Kuhchen Eine Google-Suche nach Kuhchen fördert noch einige interessante Seiten zu Tage, so zum Beispiel eine Kuhchen benannte Plastik und das Buch "Volkstümliches in ...


4

German vowels that are denoted by the same character and differ in length often differ in other qualities, too: Long vowels are more open, and short vowels are more closed. The Wikipedia entry has a table, all sounds have links to pages with sound recording. Open and closed variants are not exactly the same sounds (e.g. [ʏ] for short ü, [y] for long ü, ...


4

In Vienna, Kai is pronounced [keː] instead of [kaɪ̯].


4

You can try to pronounce a "ch" as in "Dach" (the "dark ch"), but try to relax the tongue a little more. While you do, try to make a humming sound or try to say "aaaahhh". This could get you close to what you're trying to achieve. It's also possible to use the "rolled R". Just pronounce the "R" as an English Shakespear actor would.


4

As the voice of Vienna public transport has changed two years ago, I don't know which you are referring to, but you may convince yourself by listening to the old announcements of Franz Kaida (http://www.fpdwl.at/forum/downloads/ansagen/u-bahn/6-stationsansagen-linie-u6/index.html) that he didn't say "kee" (English pronunciation) but an elongated "kay" which ...


3

In der Sprachgeschichte des Deutschen gab es (mindestens) drei verschiedene Phänomene, bei denen ein stimmhafter s-Laut entstehen konnte: Durch Assimilierung an einen anderen stimmhaften Konsonanten im Indogermanischen Durch das Vernersche Gesetz beim Übergang vom Indogermanischen zum Germanischen Durch die sogenannte Spirantenschwächung zu ...


3

It is not easy to explain the special vowels of German, which traditionally are called Umlaute. But I remember having explained the articulation of ü to an American young man. My explanation was as follows: Say a long /i/ and keep your tongue in this i-position, i. e. the tongue is near the palate. Now round your lips strongly and push your lips forward as ...


3

"Erkenntnisproblem" is constructed of two words, "Erkenntnis" and "Problem". The two words keep their pronunciation when combined. The word "Kunst" has the "st" at the end, there it stays "s-t". However in several dialects, including Swiss German, it will be spoken as "sch-t".


3

There is no organisation that decides how words are to be pronounced in German, but the Duden agrees with you, and that would be good enough for many people.


3

I do not think that the 'ks' sound is perceived as difficult by German speakers. Remember that we also have lots of 'ts' (represented by 'z') and 'pf' sounds. (There is however an Appel/Apfel dialect line.)


3

In English, t and r are both produced with the tip of the tongue, but at slightly different positions. When the tongue glides back from the t position to the r position, you get something like a sh /ʃ/ in between. In German, r is either pronounced in the back of the mouth (with the uvula) or with the tip of the tongue, but in the latter case, the tongue is ...



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