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15

Both words are pronounced the same (in standard German): [ˈzaɪ̯tn̩], singular [ˈzaɪ̯tə]; source: Duden-Aussprachewörterbuch (3rd ed., 1990). German orthography has a tendency to separate homophones wherever possible; similar cases are Leib/Laib, Lärche/Lerche.


12

"Rules" for pronunciations are merely descriptive not prescriptive. The pronounciation depends on the whole word. The numbers up until 20 were more often used than numbers greater than 20 when the German language developed. That's why the pronunciation of "vierzehn" could develop more independently from "vier" than for example "vierhundert". So, the word ...


11

Phonetics do not fully determine the spelling in German. For instance, terminal devoicing is not reflected in the orthography ("Wand" = [vant]), and vowel length can be indicated in several ways ("e" in "Weg", "ee" in "See", and "eh" in "Mehl" represent the same vowel [eː]). There are some phonemes that are omitted very frequently. The most important case ...


10

It is a bit confusing. Originally, the verb is gucken, pronounced with a g as is to be expected from the spelling. However, in northern German dialects, there is an unrelated verb kieken with about the same meaning (to look), giving rise to a hybrid kucken. This, in turn, has expanded quite a bit southward, even into regions where kieken is completely absent ...


9

A lot of the German TV shows and movies (especially the ones produced by public TV channels) will actually have German subtitles produced for them to aid the deaf ("Unterstützung/Untertitel für Hörgeschädigte" or Keyword "barrierefrei"). All German DVDs (movies and shows) that I have bought so far have subtitles (in German). YouTube let's you enable ...


9

It's from Latin, servus meaning slave, servant. So when someone greets you, Servus! it meant originally "[I am your] servant" but it is nowadays only a friendly greeting, like "Hi!" in English. Think of old-fashioned sign-offs in English letter-writing: Your obdt. & humble servant You will hear "Servus!" much more often in southern ...


8

This is a very good question. I can only state assumptions. I think it evolved as a quirk because it's easier to pronounce. For example, the word 'fünfzehn' (15) is sometimes pronounced 'fuffzehn', and the word 'zwanzig' (20) is sometimes pronounced 'zwanzich' (very common in northern Germany). Try to slowly pronounce the word 'vier' with a long 'i' and ...


8

Wenn ein s im Auslaut stimmlos gesprochen wird, liegt dies an der Auslautverhärtung des Deutschen, die auch dazu führt, dass andere Konsonanten im Auslaut härter ausgesprochen werden – so endet z. B. die Aussprache von Wald genauso wie die von Halt. Wenn nun Begungsformen oder andere Ableitungen eines Wortes existieren, in denen der entsprechende Konsonant ...


7

The voiced uvular fricative [ʁ] is nowadays the common pronunciation of "r" in High German. The uvular trill [R] is used if you want to emphasize the "r", or if you want to achieve a clear pronunciation in a more formal speech or conversation. In most contexts it is harder to speak and thus avoided. Both originated from a weakening of the alveolar thrill ...


7

There are four main reasons why the spelling of a German word might deviate from the phonetic spelling (which is rather complicated itself, especially concerning the indication of the length of vowels): Loanwords and proper names, even if they are hardly perceived as such anymore. Either they are pronounced different like Maschine (the phonetic spelling ...


7

Taken literally, your second rule (glottal stop before first vowel …) would produce something like bʔearbeiten, but that’s probably not what you mean. I’d prefer to describe it this way: A glottal stop is used whenever a word would otherwise start with a vowel, such as ʔarbeiten, ʔauf, ʔessen; and it is retained in such words even when the vowel is no ...


7

Alles was ich im allgemeinen Teil über österreichisches Deutsch sage, gilt sinngemäß auch für schweizerisches Deutsch (nicht zu verwechseln mit Schweizerdeutsch welches keine Hochsprache sondern ein Dialekt ist). Da ich im Osten Österreich lebe (geboren und aufgewachsen in Graz, seit 20 Jahren in Wien) kenne ich das schweizerische Deutsch aber zu wenig um es ...


6

Im Fall von schreib/schreibe ist bummis Antwort völlig korrekt. So sieht es in der Tat für die meisten Verben aus. Wikipedia schreibt dazu im Artikel über den Imperativ: Die Endung -e beim Imperativ Singular ist im heutigen Sprachgebrauch meistens fakultativ: mach! und mache! oder schlaf und schlafe gelten in Deutschland als gleichwertige ...


6

Pronunciation is regionally different in Germany. In Swabia this example is pronounced like follows: Saite [aɪ̯] or [ɔɪ̯] as in "Saitewürstle" Seite [ɛɪ̯] as in "Gang uff'd Seite, I mecht vorbei", or "Seitenbacher" Note however that this is inconsistent. Depending on the word, the Swabian pronunciation of "ei" may be [aɪ̯], [ɔɪ̯] or [ɛɪ̯]. The ...


6

In German standard pronunciation, there are contrasting /s/ and /z/ phonemes; for instance, Busen [ˈbuːzn̩] and Bußen [ˈbuːsn̩] differ only in the voicedness of the s (a so-called minimal pair). This difference is, however, neutralized both at the start and at the end of words: At the start of words, only a voiced [z] may appear; at the end of words, only a ...


5

In standard pronunciation, short "ä" is [ɛ] and short "e" is [ə], [ɛ], or [e], where the last one occurs in foreign words ("Methode" [meˈtoːdə]) but rarely in native ones ("lebendig" [leˈbɛndɪk]). That means that most of the time, there is no audible difference between short "ä" and "e". For instance, the vowels in "nässer" and "besser" are the same, namely ...


5

Usually, the "r" in the middle is vocalic, that is, ['vaɪəɐ̯ˌʃtʁas] or ['vaɪɐ̯ˌʃtʁas]. Using [ʁ] instead of [ɐ̯] is also fine (some might claim that this is the "official" pronunciation). I would not use a trill here. The second "r" may be a fricative [ʁ] or a trill [ʀ], [r], depending on your dialect. The last vowel is usually pronounced short by ...


5

The standard pronunciation for bitter is [ˈbɪtɐ], i.e. the phonemes /ər/ are represented by the vowel [ɐ]; for bitte, it is [ˈbɪtə], only differing in the final vowel, but clearly distinguishable for German native speakers. The pronunciation [ˈbɪtər], as heard in your linked example, is very unusual, probably only used when over-enunciating. It is ...


5

Für die Aussprache bzw. Schreibung von Eigennamen (nicht nur Ortsnamen, sondern beispielsweise auch Familiennamen) gibt es keine festen Regeln. Die Schreibweisen sind zu sehr unterschiedlichen Zeiten fixiert worden, größtenteils vor der Normierung der deutschen Rechtschreibung, und unterlagen den Moden der jeweiligen Zeit; Beispiele für solche Moden wären ...


5

To add some IPA to this discussion: You would usually transcribe the r in that position (after unstressed e at the end of syllable[1] or word) together with the e as either [əʁ] or [ɐ] The first one is with a voiced uvular fricative[2], but it is barely audible, not as strongly pronounced as in French. The second version is what you'll more often ...


5

I went to a German school in the U.S. so students would constantly flip flop between languages. I would say that in most cases people would revert to the pronunciation of whatever language they were currently speaking in. So for your example, if I was saying sorry in a German sentence, I would pronounce it like you described. I think in general the converse ...


5

I'm an Austrian physicist and I cringe every time I hear "Shwrodinger", "Ainsdine", "Goudel" and other names of people*. In German to English, eu, st, sch, ä, ö, ü, etc. get lost every time, but I've been adviced to do the same mispronunciations when talking with Americans, so they can follow you. Conversely, in both directions and in general, for social ...


4

It is not standard pronunciation. However, there are many dialects that exhibit different forms of merges between sibilants. This in turn can lead to hypercorrection, where, e.g., someone with a dialect that merges [ç] into [ʃ] tries to adapt his pronunciation to the standard and mixes it up, saying [gəˈçɪçtə] for “Geschichte”. (I’m thinking of a former ...


4

I don't know what is your level of German, but if you are looking for something especially designed to help the listening of learners, I advise you a show called "extr@" (auf Deutsch). You can find versions of it in many languages, but you want it in German. Here it is on Youtube: http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL5C7D58D38FADABDE Captions in ...


4

German /r/ can be pronounced as /R/ (uvular trill), /ʁ/ (fricative), and in some accents /r/ (/r/ is not very common). There is probably not any logical distribution of regions with a uvular trill versus fricative as in French, as it seems to be in free variation in German (it is very obvious in some languages when the sound is a uvular trill versus ...


4

/fʁoˈbeːniʊs/ (primary stress on the second syllable) The r is more fricative, although a slightly rolling /ʀ/ is appropriate for more articulate pronunciation (e.g. when speaking in front of a larger audience without PA system). However, in some rural regions in the northwest, in the south of Germany as well as in Austria and Switzerland, natives will ...


4

The English ee, as in speech, is the same sound as the German I [iː]. There is no exact equivalent to German E [eː] in the standard varieties of English (Received Pronunciation, General American). The difference in pronunciation is the degree to which the jaw is opened; [e] is less open than [i]. The position of the tongue is the same for both vowels ...


4

You must have a fine ear to notice that. Generally, the word sind is always pronounced with a voiced "s". However, the second example puts the word Autos in front of it. A word that ends with an unvoiced "s". So technically we'd have the following transition. s-z-i To do that we need to do two things... "set on" the vocal chords and form an "i". In ...


4

Die Schreibung von Schmied mit ie geht wohl laut Grimms Wörterbuch auf den Beginn des 19. Jahrhunderts zurück: "... die ursprüngliche kürze des stammvocals von schmied erscheint im früheren nhd. durchgehends gewahrt. Maaler 358a, Hulsius 286b, Schottel 1404, Stieler 1879 und Wachter 1443 bieten schmid, Frisch 2, 208a daneben auch schmied, das er für die ...


4

German and French differ in their phoneme inventories. In particular the French nasal vowel variants (as in sang, en, quinze, bon or brun) are missing in German¹ and they are not part of the native speaker’s sound inventory. Thus the “correct” pronunciation is the original French one, but German native speakers may only be able to vocalize these sounds to a ...



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