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4

Yes it is entirely possible to substitute the shwa-n combination with a vocalic n. Wrzlprmft wrote an answer on the topic stressing a different point and to an unrelated question (and in German). The bottom line is that the difference between shwa-consonant and just the consonant is not phonemic in German and they are not allophones, so nobody will really ...


2

Just from my personal observation as a native speaker, both the version with a schwa and with no vowel are possible. If you want to clearly pronounce the d then it is natural have a vowel after it. Bavarians usually are easily recognized by their vowels, even if they otherwise speak Hochdeutsch. I cannot give details, though. I think that I do indeed ...


0

[e] appearing as a short (!) vowel is a very rare case. In standard measures, one would consider the unrounded front vowels of German to be [i:] and [​ɪ], [e:] and [ɛ], [ɛ:] (and [ɛ]) and technically also [a:] and [a]; always grouped into pairs of the long and short vowels. These are represented by the letters i, e, ä and a and their variants, respectively. ...


3

As you correctly say, both [​ɪ] and [e] are more open than [i]. However, [e] is even more open (so the order, starting from the most open, is [i] – [​ɪ] – [e]), and there is another difference: While [i] and [e] are both front vowels, [​ɪ] is produced a bit further back (“near-front”). You can best compare the different positions of all vowels on a vowel ...


0

I don't know what your native language is. But since you asked in English, I give you some English examples (and of course German examples): [​ɪ] This is the "near-close near-front unrounded vowel", or "near-high near-front unrounded vowel". You find it in this Englisch words: bit [bɪt] ink [ɪŋk] It is in this German words: bitte [ˈbɪtə] Mitte ...


-4

Just as in English, the difference is much more audible in stressed syllables than in unstressed ones. Don't listen to "Mechanik" to get an idea of [e]; listen to "Messer" instead.


0

If there are words that differ solely by capitalisation and pronunciation, they are very few. Apart from Weg and weg I cannot think of any. In fact, homographes that aren’t homophones (so words that are written the same but not pronounced the same) are extremely rare in German. Short vowels are typically marked by a double consonant (and/or a consonant ...


1

Toilette is not unique. Just to add two more examples: Paillette (a small piece of shiny, reflecting decoration, e.g. on a woman's dress or shoe, perhaps sequin or spangle in English) Cassette (officially allowed spelling of Kassette) Assuming that you are an English speaker, the latter one might be interesting for you because there is the same word with ...


2

In a nutshell One of the variations you guessed (»bissler«) is wrong. What you heard was either »bisserl« or »bissel«. In Bavaria both are common variations of »bisschen«. In German German both words are non-standard words (i.e. dialect). In Austrian German »bisserl« is part of the standard vocabulary (i.e. not a dialect word). »Bissel« is just transforming ...


2

The unmarked and semi-clear pronunciation of both words is identical. In spite of das having only a single letter, the vowel is short which is common in one-syllable words (compare es, des which also have a short vowel and where the vowel length is phonetic). Which one is which is usually differed grammatically by the type of sentence they are in. So far the ...


2

I am a German native speaker (Bavarian, 19) who has spent significant time abroad (in an English speaking country) and working in a field that is very much Denglish (colleagues who only speak English, publications are all in English, conversation are technically German with people switching or simply using the English terms, esp. when discussing paper). My ...


11

There is no difference in pronunciation (not in Hochdeutsch at least), and you don't need to differentiate them, since grammar orders them. That is: das dass (✗) is forbidden by grammar rules. In particular, dass requires a punctuation sign, in fact: das, dass das. Dass das; dass are possible.


1

Wenn wir hier über den bayerischen Dialekt sprechen, dann hat [za:] zumindest eine zusätzliche Bedeutung, welche ich mal als "Ausdruck von Skepsis und Misfallen" bezeichnen würde. Als Beispiel: Ein Münchner im Himmel, in der "klassischen" Zeichentrickform, gelesen von Alois Gondrell. Etwa 2-2.30 Minuten im Film, nach "Bekanntmachung mit der himmlischen ...


2

Manche Deutsche benutzen in ihrem alltäglichen Sprachgebrauch Ausdrücke wie "ähm" oder ähnliches. In dem Fall des Kellners scheint es mir, als würde der Ausdruck [zaː] in dieser Situation das Herangehen an den Tisch und das Fertigmachen zum Ausgeben der Getränke überbrücken. In dieser Form ist es ein freundliches auf sich Aufmerksam machen. "Passen Sie auf, ...


2

Ich würde sagen, dass Tschü-üs eine Nähe oder Intimität ausdrückt. Eigentlich ist es einfach nur ein langgezogener Vokal. So würde ich mich von guten Freunden oder geliebten Menschen verabschieden. Genauso kann man z.B. das u in Guten Tag langziehen (Guuuten Taag).


5

Except from the example "Weg" there is no common such pair. However, capitalising things works as an emphasizer, and that does affect pronunciation somewhat; it might be slower, more majestic, etc. Douglas Adams, Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency: The door was the way to... to... The Door was The Way. Good. Capital letters were always the best ...


13

Yes, there are: Weg [veːk], weg [vɛk]. It is, however, not the capitalization itself that affects pronunciation; it just so happens that one of the words is a noun and therefore capitalized.


1

No, capitalization never has effect on pronunciation in german language.



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