New answers tagged sentence-structure
In German, the verb always comes second in a statement. That seems to be the gist of your question, using your example. Next time, spell it out that way. So it begins correctly, "In meiner Freizeit" (adverbial clause). The next thing that needs to come is the verb "lesen." But it's not the infinitive you need to use but the conjugated version (with ich), ...
This sentence seems to be spoken German and in spoken German you don't analyse whether the subject is the same or not. As "um zu + infinitive" and "damit" both express purpose in spoken language can occur "damit" where the speaker would use "um zu" when he would write the sentence. In spoken language not all rules you can find in DAF textbooks are strictly ...
I think the rule is more like "if the subjects are different, you can't use 'um ... zu', and you must use 'damit'". I can come up with multiple examples where the subjects are the same, and one could use either "damit" or "um ... zu". In your example, "damit" is more natural. It emphasizes that it's a goal, and not a more or less natural consequence.
As Emanuel said, the trick is: The more important an aspect is, the later (i.e., the more towards the end of the sentence) it’s mentioned. This is correct for all unmarked sentences. On a grammatically point of view, your sentences are fine as well, but you have to be aware that your sentence has a marked word order. This means your putting focus on a ...
The 'es' is correct. It has the role of a formal subject - the sentence wouldn't have any subject without it. Canoo.net has a nice blog post about it. They also state that the "es" is not necessary here because some verbs and expressions that describe (mostly) uncomfortable sensations can go without a subject.
"Ihm war es nicht kalt." is completely correct. It puts an emphasis on the person denoted by "ihm". For instance: There are several people who are feeling cold except one. Then you might describe this latter one by the sentence under discussion.
Ich halte "mir ist kalt" für die Standardvariante. Im Deutschen gibt es aber so viele Regionalvarianten, dass ich nicht ausschließen möchte, dass auch die Variante mit "es" vorkommt. Sie dürfte aber eher selten sein. Ich will nicht lange recherchieren, aber ich habe einfach mal gegoogelt: Bei der Eingabe "mir is kalt" findet man allerhand. Bei "es ist mir ...
In German one can, almost freely, arrange words around to emphasize. So, while the neutral expression would be "Es war ihm nicht kalt", if you wanted to put emphasis on the subject, you could phrase it like that. It would mean "He wasn't feeling cold", somehow insinuating that someone else was. Like "Allen fror es, doch ihm war es nicht kalt / Everyone was ...
With another word order the sentence becomes valid: Es war ihm nicht kalt. so one would think that Ihm war es nicht kalt. is also possible. But the es in the first sentence has no meaning/is not a real object. It serves only one purpose: It lets the verb come second, as needed in German declarative sentences (V2). It is conveniently called ...
As you list steps here you should use the first version. In the second version it sounds like you call the user to create a new project, but you do not want the user to really create a project, you just want to give more information about how to create a project.
Depends. If I do bullet point style instructions, listing one step after another, I use Infinitiv: Auf Start -> Programme -> WinSCP klicken Links den Server language.german auswählen That is common for recipes, like "60 Minuten bei 220° backen". If I want to actually explain what the user should do, I use complete sentences, with a lot of Passiv: Um ...
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