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44

Take an open source dictionary or a closed one, if you have access and it is in textform and a scripting language of your choice, like bash, and search yourself: for c in {a..z}; do grep $c$c$c ~/lib/dicts/utf-german ; done This leads to a lot of examples, starting with Armeeeinheit and ending in Wettturnen for my dictionary. de_de.dict, however, gives ...


34

While there are no atomic words with three identical letters in a row, this pattern can sometimes be found in compounds. Compounds (the German word is Kompositum) are a combination of two or more words. One way to form them is by prepending a descriptive word in front of the main word (there are many other ways, they are all described here). Now, if such a ...


32

You can capitalise personal pronouns, but you don't always have to: If you are speaking formally, always capitalise Sie, Ihre, and so forth. If you communicate with someone informally, you have a free choice - though capitalising personal pronouns is more polite. In general, informal text (as opposed to private correspondence), never capitalise informal ...


29

Capitalization of nouns was introduced in Late Middleages (14th century). The first letter(s) of single words (especially religious terms like "GOtt", but not just nouns) were set in majuscules in order to emphasize these words. Today's capitalization of all nouns was officially introduced in 17th century German. The literary critic und translator Walter ...


28

Don't try to use the old spelling if you are a foreign student. Partial use of the old orthography will endear you to no one. Neither is it likely that the occasional "daß" will make you look out of date. Many people have continued to use "daß" while not applying most of the other concerned old orthography rules because most people never knew them. But the ...


26

Since the 1996 reform, the rule is very simple: Use an ß when following a long vowel (Maß, Spaß) ss when it follows a short vowel (Bass, Kasse, Essen) But only after splitting the word into morphemes*: Essen is made up of the morphemes "ess" and "en". Aßen is formed by first splitting up the word according to its morphemes and then applying any ...


25

Wikipedia says it was mandatory to capitalize Du in letters until 1996, then it was forbidden until 2006, now it's optional. In my experience, most people who learned to read and write before 1996 are perfectly fine with capitalizing Du in letters, it's definitely not too formal.


24

Eines der wichtigsten Prinzipien der deutschen Orthographie ist es, die einander entsprechenden Teile von verwandten Wörtern möglichst gleich zu schreiben (Stammprinzip). Nämlich wird also so geschrieben, weil schon Name kein h enthält. Ein langer Stammvokal in offener Silbe ist eigentlich der Normalfall und braucht nicht besonders markiert zu werden ...


22

Die Kölner Beiträge zur Sprachdidaktik (1/2005) beschreiben Studien aus dem Jahr 1989, ich zitiere eine Zusammenfassung und die Ergebnisse (Hervorhebungen von mir - schien mir sinnvoller, als ganz viel auszulassen). Englische Leser werden hier nicht erwähnt; ich kann mir aber gut vorstellen, dass das Ergebnis in dem Fall nicht wesentlich anders wäre als bei ...


20

Ein bekanntes Beispiel ist auf folgendem Wegweiser zu finden: Gemeint ist hier nicht etwa die Universität in Halle, sondern die Uni-Halle in Wuppertal. -- Update: Ein Versuch, einen Satz zu konstruieren: Ich mag Torten(,) Diagramme nicht. Ich mag Tortendiagramme nicht. oder vielleicht etwas origineller: Sie hatten den Personen Verkehr ...


20

It's Scheißhaus It's a composition of the verb scheißen (not the noun Scheiße) and the noun Haus See this or this for more details.


19

You can do it in every-day conversations by E-Mail or chat. But when writing a somewhat official document, you really should try to get the umlauts right. It's just a question of conformity: You want to use the language, so use it correctly. A whole different problem that will probably come up if you manage to get the umlauts in your email is encoding - if ...


17

Es handelt sich dabei nicht um eine Ausnahme, vielmehr sind die beiden Phänomene Umlaut und Ablaut voneinander zu unterscheiden. Ablaut ist ein sehr altes Phänomen und wird schon seit indogermanischer Zeit benutzt, um Wörter und Wortformen voneinander abzuleiten. Das Standardbeispiel für den Ablaut ist die Konjugation starker Verben in Präsens, Präteritum ...


17

Just checked my collection of Duden: 1880 – Not in the book (Faksimile 1990) 1924 – Miß (Misses, pl) 1947 – Miß (Misses, pl) (Leipzig) 1991 – Miß (in engl. spelling Miss) 2006 – Miss For good measure two Knaur: 1932 – Miß 1965 – Miss So Miß was the correct spelling until the reform(s) in 1996/2004/2006 and there was a time when the English spelling ...


16

This Wikipedia article about the spelling reform of 1996 lists some older adaptations (like strike -> Streik) as well as other changes proposed in the reform. There seems to be a tendency in the German language to adapt the spelling of foreign words to their sound: silent consonants are eliminated, ‘ph’ is made into a ‘f’, accents (‘é’) are eliminated. In ...


16

Perception of your writing The majority of the people are used to the new spelling now, so I'd suggest writing in new spelling simply because it would appear strange to not use it. Most people should know you are no native and therefore they'll expect you to write in the new orthography. As for those minority using the old spelling nevertheless, it's their ...


16

To attack the premise of the question: What are the arguments for substituting ß with sz? A lot of things happened to German spelling (and pronunciaton) since the appearance of the letter eszett. In particular, what once made sz the preferred choice of letters to represent what we now write as ß¹ is long gone. So, while the eszett bears the letters s and z ...


15

In all languages including German spelling evolved over time with no fixed rules on orthography or spelling. Nevertheless people tried to find letters for phonetically similar sounds. In the family of phonetically related letters for the modern 'F' we can find the following, also relevant for "father", and "Vater" which have a common Indo-European root with ...


15

In der unbestimmten Bedeutung wird jahrzehntealt als Adjektiv zusammengeschrieben und somit kleingeschrieben: Diese jahrzehntealte Idee ist toll. Die Getrenntschreibung ist nur richtig, wenn eine nähere Bestimmung hinzukommt: drei, mehrere, viele Jahrzehnte alt. Diese viele Jahrzehnte alte Idee ist toll.


15

Rules If I didn’t miss something, the official regulations specify triple letters only implicitly, because they contain no rule for collapsing them into two, except for the three “exceptions” Drittel, Mittag, dennoch in § 4 (8). Three equal letters are mentioned as a reason to use a hyphen in § 45: § 45 Man kann einen Bindestrich setzen zur Hervorhebung ...


14

In diesem Zwiebelfisch-Artikel gibt es zwei nette Beispiele für Mehrdeutigkeiten, die durch Einsatz des Deppenleerzeichens entstehen:


13

Maybe it would be Reiß. My lastname ends with ß, but there are also varieties of my lastname ending with ss. Some other examples, where both ways are common: Heß - Hess Voß - Voss and so on. In Germany, with a lastname like this, you always get asked, if it is written with double s or eszett.


13

This is part of the revision of the revision of German orthography. The first revision disallowed the use of a capital letter for du and ihr. The second revision allows both versions. As far as I know, Sie was never affected and is always written with a capital S. To answer the question: I know many people that wouldn't think twice over writing Du and ...


13

Miß (sic) seems to have been an accepted spelling back in the 1960’s. Take this article from the Zeit, e.g.: Denn auf der glatten Stirn dieser Jung-Parlamentarierin namens Dr. Ursula Krips ziehen steile Unmutsfalten auf, wenn sie daran erinnert wird, daß eilfertige Reporter ihr den Titel „Miß Bundestag“ verpaßt haben: „Politik ist doch kein ...


12

"Wieviel" is the alte Rechtschreibung. The modern spelling is "wie viel". "Wie viele" is written as two words, both in the old and new spelling.


12

There is no single set of spelling rules for the German language (just as, e.g. British and US English have different orthographies). German as used in Germany does include ß in certain words (after long vowels and diphthongs), and this is -- within the official orthography -- mandatory. German as used in Switzerland, however, does not. An analogy in ...


12

Wenn ich am Telefon eine E-Mail-Adresse weitergebe, dann gehe ich wie folgt vor: @ Ich sage eigentlich immer 'ät'. Wenn mein Gegenüber das aber nicht versteht (was sehr selten vorkommt), dann greife ich auf 'Klammeraffe' zurück. Wenn auch das nicht verstanden wird, dann erkläre ich, dass es sich um das Symbol auf der 'Q'-Taste handelt. Anmerkung: Das ...


12

I am not aware of any such list, but I don't think it would be very long. Here are the few words that I can contribute: Busse (plural to Bus) vs. Buße (penitence; in Switzerland also a fine, but spelled Busse there) ein Muss (a "must") vs. ein Muß Mus (mush, this was a mistake by me, but i keep it as an example for an ambiguity between ss and s) Rußen ...


11

I don't know about others, but I painstakingly capitalise "Du", "Dir", "Dich", "Dein" etc, in written communication, be they paper or E-mails. For me, the personal pronoun is the equivalent of the person's name and it is a matter of respect to capitalise it. Ich weiß nicht, wie andere es halten, aber ich achte peinlich genau darauf, "Du", "Dir", "Dich", ...


11

I am using this all the time, and have been for as long as I can remember. Never heard a single objection. Ever.



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