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25

The 'correct' standard German pronunciation for China is /'ç.../) but in Southern Germany and in Austria they say 'Kina' (/'k.../). In some regions (for example where I live) some people say 'Schina' (/'ʃ.../), but they also say 'isch' instead of 'ich' or 'Mädschen' instead of 'Mädchen'. That is, we pronounce the 'ch' in a different way, but that's not ...


11

Ich clearly is the grammatical subject. There are numerous cues for that: It is in nominative case; subjects usually use this case. It comes right after the verb (though this is not the strongest hint as not 100% fail proof). The verb machen is in accordance with a subject first person singular: mache. Technically it could also be conjunctive 1 ("Der Arzt ...


10

If you want to learn some formulas as Guten Tag, Auf Wiedersehen, Danke, Bitte, Ja, Nein, and so on, I think you can do it in one week. Whether you can call this "to learn German" is another question. There are books available that promise "Learn German/English in thirty hours" - that is throwing sand in your eyes. They mean thirty lessons of German/English ...


9

I would avoid two things: Any thick dialect. Think about non-native speakers or people who moved to a certain area just recently. Note also that strong dialect is connected with a lower degree of education in some peoples minds. Any dialect you don't speak properly. People will notice that something is not right there (in the best case) or even feel ...


7

The voiced uvular fricative [ʁ] is nowadays the common pronunciation of "r" in High German. The uvular trill [R] is used if you want to emphasize the "r", or if you want to achieve a clear pronunciation in a more formal speech or conversation. In most contexts it is harder to speak and thus avoided. Both originated from a weakening of the alveolar thrill ...


6

Q1: Ja es gibt so eine Grenze: In Österreich werden häufig Wörter mit -s am Ende verwendet, was in Deutschland als ungrammatikalisch gelten würde. Zum Beispiel heißt es in Österreich "weiters", in Deutschland aber "weiterhin", wobei das eine andere Bedeutung hat als "weiter". Ähnliche Unterschiede gibt es auch bei -s- als Fugenlaut. In Deutschland sagt man ...


6

§58 (6) der Rechtschreibregeln lautet: Kardinalzahlen unter einer Million [schreibt man klein, obwohl sie formale Merkmale der Substantivierung aufweisen] Hierzu wird unter anderem folgendes Beispiel gegeben, das recht analog zu Deinem ist: Er sollte die Summe durch acht teilen. Daher würde ich eins kleinschreiben.


5

Obviously "I ate too much" is mostly used in a colloquial setting. Therefore in addition to the correct literal translation "Ich habe zu viel gegessen" we do have several colloquial variants we may probably hear more often: Ich kann nicht mehr. Ich bin pappsatt. Ich platze.


5

Gehen as a motion to a place is basically either of the following 3: 1.: "to go some place by foot" / to walk 2.: "to go some place for a longer period of time" Ich gehe für 2 Monate nach Japan. Note that in this case your means of transportation are not of any interest. 3.: "to frequent a place" Mein Sohn geht gerne zur Schule. Ich gehe ...


5

The ei diphtong are in Zeile and Zeiger derived from two different middle-high-german sounds: Hd. Zeiger = mhd zeiger Hd. Zeile = mhd zīl(e) For the modern high-german, the ei remained the same, whereas ī morphed into ei. In the southern dialects (e.g. Bairisch, Schweizerdeutsch), this was different: In Schweizerdeutsch, the vocals remained basically ...


5

They are not completely interchangable. It depends on your intention as speaker: in some contexts constructions with „wenn“ bear a temporal and a conditional intention (mostly both), while „falls“ is reduced to the conditional. Please consider following examples: Wenn ich zurück komme, heiraten wir. vs. Falls ich zurück komme, heiraten wir. The ...


4

For any sales calls, meeting, business contacts I would recommend to use "Hochdeutsch" but don't be shy to show a personal accent. Only place a dialect really fits into a business talk: if you live/work in the same region as your business partner and only if they use dialect. In that case the dialect could be used a local identifier. E.g.: I'm Austrian ...


4

Laut dem Tutorium "Einführung in die Sprachwissenschaft" von Patrick Bal (TU Darmstadt) gelten (unter anderen) folgende Merkmale: Standardsprache: überregional stark normiert (Aussprache, Rechtschreibung, Grammatik) in der Schule vermittelt (stellt i. d. R. nicht die primäre Sprachform im Spracherweb dar) "flexible Stabilität" (widerstandsfähig ...


4

Deutsche Welle Online might be a good place to start. There are audio clips to listen to as well as worksheets to print out. They offer a variety of courses that address language from everyday speech, news, business, travel, mystery, etc. with "Deutsch - warum nicht?", "Wieso nicht?", "Marktplatz?", "Radio D", and others. Here is their main link to choose ...


4

'It turns out' is translated 'es stellt sich heraus'. There are different sentence constructions with this expression that you need to keep apart: A) In two clauses: Es stellt sich heraus, dass der Mann ein guter Kerl ist. It turns out (that) the man is a good guy. and a variation of this: Wie sich herausstellt, ist der Mann ein guter Kerl. ...


3

An accusative phrase that is part of a prepositional phrase is not an accusative object. Fahren has no accusative object here, just an attribute to indicate direction. Therefore, its correct perfect auxiliary is indeed "sein", as in Ich bin in die Stadt gefahren. It would be a different case if you added a real accusative object to it: Ich habe ...


3

It is acceptable, because it is also common to use "SS" for words written in up-case letters, as there is no capital "ß" in the official orthography rules, so the up-case version of "Straße" ist "STRASSE" (sometimes you see things like "STRAßE" which is just a horribly incorrect spelling). Therefore, writing "Strasse" instead of "Straße" would be formally ...


3

Hochdeutsch is the description for the contemporary standard version of German, they way the language is usually written and spoken. Therefore, it is also the easiest variation to learn, because if you look for exercise books, they will cover most probably Hochdeutsch instead of a dialect.


3

When talking about "standard German" you should know that there are three standard variations of German: German German (yes, sounds funny, but this is its official name) Austrian German Swiss German You can think of the differences between this variation like the differences between american and british english. This means: the three variations are ...


3

I would recommend the following public broadcasting resources for listening to standard German as you called it: Deutschlanddadio Kultur Deutschlandfunk DRadio Wissen A lot of their shows come along with a text version. Please see also resources for learning German. Diving into German accents is certainly not a good idea for an average learner. It is ...


3

The German word "gehen" has many meanings with only one being "walking". The Duden listes 15 different meanings (30 if you count the "sub meanings"). For example, it can also mean "to go", "to leave", "to function", "to visit regularly", "to dress up as", "to use something (without permission)", "to be with someone (romantically)", etc. "Walking" is ...


3

Usually most of the foreigner words in German used to be neutral (as in das Internet – probably the reason is that it was borrowed from English where there is no easy way to say what gender has a noun). die Jeans is a short form of die Jeanshose and it got gender from Hose. You can actually say der Jeans and it would be understand as der Jeansstoff. Now in ...


3

Der von dir zur Diskussion gestellte Vorgang ist aus rein logischen Gründen nicht möglich: Ein Wesen, egal ob Gott oder etwas anderes, kann entweder sterblich oder unsterblich sein, aber nicht beides zugleich. Wenn ein Wesen auf irgendeine Weise unsterblich geworden ist, kann es laut Definition niemals sterben. "Niemals" bedeutet: "Nie und nimmer, unter gar ...


3

Werner Besch schreibt in seinem Buch Sprachgeschichte: ein Handbuch zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und ihrer Erforschung: Ein Kennlautung des heutigen Wienerischen ist [a] für mhd. ei ([ha:s] 'heiß'), die sich auch in den mbair. Umgangssprachen Österreichs zunehmend durchsetzt, Kranzmayer ([1956, § 20g2) hielt dieses [a] für eine Folge der ...


3

I am a native German speaker from Berlin and have not studied languages, so I can only speak from my own experience. When it comes to the written language, the differences between standard German in Austria, Germany and Switzerland are small (think American and British English). I see no harm in mixing your reading material. When I go to Switzerland I may ...


2

Folgende Unterschiede fallen mir noch ein: am als Verkürzung von sowohl an dem als auch auf dem: "Die Speisen stehen am Tisch". Wenn man etwas um 10 Euro kauft, so sind das exakt 10 Euro. Offenbar können (Nord-)Deutsche dies als ungefähren Ausdruck interpretieren (dies wäre allerdings um die 10 Euro). anderer Genus für diverse Dinge: "das E-Mail", "das ...


2

I am trying to compile words with "ei" that are pronounced "ah" vs. "ei" in Vienna: ah: Zeiger weich Beine meinen (verb) keine eine weiß (verb) ei: Zeit weit Weile Zeile Teil feilen fein mein (possessive) Heiterkeit weiß (color) Reim neigen Leiche Several remarks: 1. Words that have foreign etymology are not modified to "ah". 2. If "ei" is followed by ...


2

Here ich is at the nominative case. If ich was not the subject, it would be mich (accusative form) or mir (dative form)... However it is simply in the nominative form... so it is grammatically written as the subject of the sentence.


2

Duden hat einen Eintrag für "hoch" in der Bedeutung "hinauf". Dazu ist keine Angabe zum Gebrauch gemacht, wie es bei umganssprachlichen oder regional begrenzten Ausdrücken üblicherweise geschieht. Daraus würde ich lesen, dass "hoch" in der angegebenen Bedeutung (bundesdeutsch) standardsprachlich ist und es keine Einwände gegen den Gebrauch im ...



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