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15

Dich trügt dein Sprachgefühl. Das, was du als Zustandspassiv anzusehen scheinst, ist in Wirklichkeit ein Plusquamperfekt, also die Vorvergangenheit. Der Tod […] hat große Trauer ausgelöst (1. Vergangenheitsstufe) Der SPD-Politiker war gestern gestorben. (2. Vergangenheitsstufe) Die 2. Vergangenheitsstufe muss logisch und faktisch vor der ersten ...


15

Because the infinitive can act as imperative in very short, oral instructions and commands. (Not for full sentences or polite requests!) On a train station: Zurückbleiben! Likewise for instructions that have no direct adressee. Quote from a random pack of tea from my cupboard: Pro Tasse einen Aufgussbeutel mit sprudelnd kochendem Wasser übergießen ...


14

First a correction regarding the underlying facts: It is misleading to say that standard German does not have a progressive aspect. As pointed out in a passage you quoted, standard German has an extremely short and efficient method to express the progressive aspect: adding the adverb gerade, which roughly translates to right now. It's just not obligatory. ...


12

So here is my try - the following verbs might be used in either way in spoken language, sometimes depending on what you want to say, sometimes it is just random or personal preference or flow of speech: gehen - ging Should be used in the sense of "to work" or "to be". Ich wäre gerne zu deiner Party gekommen, aber es ging nicht. If you go places, use ...


11

It is Perfekt Passiv of bauen ... Vorgangspassiv to be precise. Das Haus wird gebaut. (Präsens) Das Haus ist gebaut worden. (Perfekt) Das Haus wurde gebaut. (Präteritum) I will not give translations as the notion of the tenses in German and English are not the same. Both past forms are to an extend interchangeable. What threw you of was ...


9

You use Präteritum for events which are not yet completed or for which the time doesn’t matter. In novels for example Präteritum is used more often. There is a really good article in German on this topic: Präteritum oder Perfekt?


9

Also, im Satz deiner Lehrerin ist auf jeden Fall schon mal ein werden zu viel. Der Satz lautet wenn schon: Die Alliierten wollten, dass Deutschland so gehindert sein wird, dass das Land nie wieder eine Bedrohung für die Welt darstellen kann. Wie kommt man dahin? "Die Alliierten wollten …" ist ja klar ein Punkt in der Vergangenheit. Alles, worauf du ...


9

It does not make much sense to ask why a certain language has this or that feature. Why does english have just only one noun class (i.e. gender)? (with the exception of pronouns for persons; he, she, it). German has three such classes (male, female, neuter) and Swahili has 22. Why does modern English just have 3 grammatical cases, while old english had 5, ...


8

Yes, that is absolutely possible, though rare in practice (unless it is an intentional pun in jokes, book titles etc.). One well-known unintentional example is das gelobte Land (the Promised Land). Martin Luther coined it from geloben, which now is obsolescent; many people today therefore think it is derived from loben and understand it as the praised land. ...


8

For the spoken language, a good guideline is indeed to use the Perfekt, except for auxiliary and modal verbs and a few other very common verbs (can't say which ones, unfortunately). To expand on the example in splattne's answer (I wouldn't say "Ich lag den ganzen Tag in der Sonne", and sorry, I'm a bad narrator): Das Wetter war schön am Dienstag. Ich ...


8

Ich kaufte einen Computer sounds wrong to me even in written form. Perhaps it would be okay if you're writing a novel and were describing the circumstances of buying a computer. But in a normal sentence I'd prefer Ich habe einen Computer gekauft. While: Das Wetter war schön am Dienstag. Ich lag den ganzen Tag in der Sonne. is perfectly ...


8

Of course, the simple past can be translated as Er ging jeden Tag zum Strand. Expressing the habitual past isn't that easy. You can use the verb "pflegen" to express the habitual aspect: Er pflegte jeden Tag zum Strand zu gehen. However, this is quite elevated style; you wouldn't normally say that, it rather fits into a novel. As an alternative, ...


8

No. That's wrong. The German language does not contain such a feature as English does. Hence, you use the simple present. From context it's clear if the action happens right now or not. However, to avoid any misunderstandings, you can add words like gerade (English right now) for clarification. Thus, "He is going" is translated to "Er geht (gerade)". ...


8

I’m afraid it’s not just a question about near or distant future. You go with present tense when you speak about a future event in a, say, neutral but assured way. Ich bin sofort da. Ich mache das gleich. Heute abend geh ich früh schlafen. Morgen räum ich die Garage auf. Nächste Woche laufe ich einen Marathon. In zwei Monaten fahre ich in ...


7

Essen haben can only mean to possess food. If somebody is having food, the verb essen must be used. Same goes for drinks (Drink, Getränk and trinken).


7

The Rheinische Verlaufsform - the proper scientific term being “am-Progressiv” - is seeping into common language. It is mostly used with a valency of zero or one in High German. There are other variations, such as sein + beim + verb and rare occurrences - only applicable in few situations - of sein + im + verb. Note that the verb has to be capitalized. The ...


6

Ich frage mich, ob man die Beispielsätze vor der grammatikalischen Untersuchung nicht vereinfachen könnte, ohne an Inhalt zu verlieren. Ich hätte früher dort sein müssen. wäre eine „normale“ irreale Modalverbkonstruktion. „Hätte ... müssen“ ist das Modalverb (mit Hilfsverb haben), das im Plusquamperfekt Konjunktiv II steht; „sein“ das Hauptverb im ...


6

Imagine two friends, Hans and Willi. Hans has just lugged a sack of cement up a flight of stairs. Satisfied with his performance, he exhales: Uff, geschafft. Willi grins at him and asks: Geschafft oder... geschafft? The wordplay comes from the fact that the participle geschafft can mean both "done", "accomplished", "complete" (as in Ich habe es ...


6

In großen Teilen des deutschen Sprachgebiets wird ein -e am Wortende regelmäßig ausgelassen (Apokope), man sagt also beispielsweise ich fahr’ statt ich fahre oder müd’ statt müde. Nur in einem relativ schmalen Streifen vom Emsland nach Brandenburg ist das -e in den Dialekten erhalten. Wo die Apokope durchgeführt ist, fällt bei schwachen Verben in der ...


6

One very common way to talk about habits is the word "immer". Thomas hat sich immer selber Essen mitgebracht. Thomas would bring his own food all the time. However, that doesn't work if it's only an occasional habit or (as in your example) if there is a second, more specific indication of time. Ich bin immer jeden Tag zum Strand gegangen... ...


6

In my view Wir waren beim Jagen is a continuous form and it corresponds to an older form We were ahunting in English. The question should be why English dropped the preposition before the gerund. My answer: Because English has a strong tendency to shorten. There is a difference. German does not use the form beim/am + gerund as systematically ...


5

The example you gave is interesting indeed, as from their etymology both words do come from the same root "hören" (Old High German hōren). They also have the same origin with the English "to hear" (Old English hēran). The prefix 'ge-' to build "gehören" was used to emphasis hearing, and also is found in both, Old High German (gihōren), and Old English ...


5

Präsens: In wenigen gesprochenen Situationen, um anzudeuten, dass das Gegenüber das vermutlich gleich sagen wird , aber nicht soll: Weißt du, wer im neuen Harry Potter stirbt?!? Bisher weiß ich das nicht! *bös schau* Perfekt: Die übliche gesprochene Form, nachdem man die Sache jetzt erfahren hat. Präteritum: Dasselbe schriftlich. ...


5

As a general note because people tend to confuse this: Obviously, many written texts use the Präteritum, even though one gets the impression that it is scarcely used in everyday life. Now, this does not imply that Präteritum is the past tense used in written form whereas Perfekt is the kind of informal spoken form of it. Nor does it mean that one needs to ...


5

I'm not sure if this answers your question, because I'm not sure what you mean with "aspect" in this context. Just let me say it is handled a little bit different in German: A tense in German is called "Zeitform" or "Tempus" (plural: Tempora). We have the following Tempora in German: Präsens, Präsensperfekt, Präteritum, Präteritumperfekt, Futur, ...


5

Er ist am Gehen can be heard in colloquial German, but generally in German there's no difference between the simple form and the continuous form. That's why it is so hard for us to grasp the concept :-) Jokingly people call this the "Rheinische Verlaufsform", because it is very often heard in the Rheinland area. You can hear gems like Weißt du, was du ...


5

There is no construction which expresses a continuous action per se. As for a continuous action in the present, you need signal words if it's not obvious from context. For example: Ich spiele Fußball. (Without context no translation possible.) Ich spiele montags immer Fußball. (I play football on Mondays.) Ich spiele gerade Fußball. (I'm playing ...


5

Es kommt natürlich sehr auf die Art deines Aufsatzes oder deines Briefes an. Und es hängt auch davon ab, in welchem Rahmen du ihn schreibst. Grundsätzlich gilt allerdings, dass in Aufsätzen das Präteritum bevorzugt werden sollte. Selbst Bayern wie ich, die in gesprochener Sprache nur wollt(e) und war als Präteritumsformen kennen, haben unsere Schulaufsätze ...


5

These are different conjugations. Usually, verbs endind -te are written in their preterite form (past form). Umlauts ¨(ä, ö, ü) are usually used for the conditional of the verb, and change the pronunciation of the vowel. Present: I have = ich habe I can = ich kann Preterite: I had = ich hatte I could = ich konnte Conditional: I would ...


5

The sentence Die Katze ist verschwunden has two different interpretations: On the one hand, ist can be the auxiliary used when forming the perfect tense. In that case, verschwunden is part of the perfect form and the sentence is analogous to Der Mann ist gestorben or Der Hahn hat (!) gekräht; it indicates that an event (disappearance of the cat) ...



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