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To Emanuel's excellent answer I would add: setzen - saß denken - dachte wissen - wusste brauchen - brauchte rufen - rief And for some people laufen - lief


In general both forms are used to describe what happened in the past. Usually in spoken language there is no differentiation between Präteritum and Perfekt. Präteritum sounds more formal whereas Perfekt is commonly used and sounds more familiar. typical perfect in spoken language: "Ich habe das Bad geputzt und danach die Wäsche gewaschen." In a newspaper ...


This is one of the "catalog use cases" of Plusquamperfekt (past perfect) in German, which is very rarely used in the contemporary language. Plusquamperfekt, as you rightly say, is used for actions (and states) that have already happened or were apparent before the perfect. As all of your story is in perfect, it is used to express that the horses have been ...


Switching tenses like this when they obviously aren't applicable is a literary device; it expresses excitement or even incoherence. For instance, you might be telling a story in the past tense, and at a riveting development you switch to the present tense to add immediacy to the effect you're having. This passage simply makes more extensive use of that ...

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