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20

Multiple questions, multiple answers: In English, the sounds like a, e, i, o, u are called vowel sounds. Erm, technically true, but you’re forgetting y. And there are a lot more vowel sounds that just the five ‘standard’ ones. There are some twenty different vowel sounds in English if you include diphthongs (and there’s no real reason not to). I ...


18

Mit grep finde ich in einem Wörterbuch: egrep ".*[äöüßÄÖÜ].*[äöüß].*[äöüß].*[äöüß]" ~/lib/dicts/utf-german Fußgängerübergänge Größenmaßstäbe größenordnungsmäßig also 3 Vierlinge, aber leider alle mit einer Wiederholung. Längere sind nicht verzeichnet, aber da man im Deutschen beliebig lange Substantive kombinieren kann wäre "Fußgängerübergangsmörtel" ...


17

You can do it in every-day conversations by E-Mail or chat. But when writing a somewhat official document, you really should try to get the umlauts right. It's just a question of conformity: You want to use the language, so use it correctly. A whole different problem that will probably come up if you manage to get the umlauts in your email is encoding - if ...


16

We are probably talking about then handwriting as it is taught to children in school. Before 1970 When I was at school we were taught the "Lateinische Ausgangsschrift" where we had to make strokes on the letters as shown below: Source: Wikipedia This was mainly done from historic reasons. The school handwritings derived from Sütterlin, and the "Deutsche ...


15

The German alphabet (in German "Deutsches Alphabet" or colloquial "A-B-C") is a variation of the Latin alphabet and includes 26 capitalized letters (same as in English) plus the umlauts (Ä, Ö, Ü) and (only) in Germany and Austria the "scharfes S" (ß). The ß ist not part of the alphabet in Switzerland and Liechtenstein. If you're referring to a single letter ...


13

Umlaute werden im Fraktursatz in der Regel mit nachgestelltem e wiedergegeben, wenn es sich bei dem Umlaut um Großbuchstaben (Majuskeln) handelt: Aepfel, Oeſe, Uebung Umlaute als Kleinbuchstaben werden, je nach Schrift, durch ein Trema (¨) oder durch ein übergestelltes kleines e gekennzeichnet. Historischer Nachsatz: Im Mittelalter wurde ein ...


11

The result of the dots, so the letter with the dots on it, is an Umlaut – literally a “resounding” – of the vowel. The dots themselves are commonly known as ä/ö/ü-Striche (or Strichelchen), depending on what word you have in mind. That’s what we, including the teachers, used in school. The term umlaut only came to my attention once I started having contact ...


10

I found some word with three characters (un)verhältnismäßig, Verhältnismäßigkeit Präzisionsmeßgerät (old spelling, and perhaps "zusammengesetzte Substantiv") Lückenbüßer Übergröße Müßiggänger außerplanmäßig Some more without a check in the Duden: Einflußgröße Gefäßschädigung Meßgröße Rückäußerung Rückstöße blütenübersät flächenmäßig gefühlsmäßig ...


10

All images are hyperlinks to their sources. As with all historical typographic and linguistic developments, it’s much more easy to say what happened than why it happened. The following is a brief overview over the history, which I try to back up where I can: In medieval calligraphy and typsetting before movable type, it was quite common to use superscript ...


10

It's an "umlaut transliteration", if you will, and was quite common in the days of typewriters. In these days of ubiquitous Unicode, there's little excuse for it (US-keyboard or no). Here's probably more than you wanted to know: Conversion table for diacritics (e.g. "ü" → "ue")


9

Several ways: Switch to a German keyboard layout. No, really. On Windows, you can (after having configured it) switch between layouts by pressing Shift+Alt, so you can just switch when writing the special characters. This way, you just have to memorize where these four keys are, not all the other differences between US and German layout. Use codes: ä, for ...


9

Try to omit this practice as much as possible. Nur sehr geubte Leser werden diesen Satz so entziffern konnen wie er ursprunglich gedacht war. Nur sehr geuebte Leser werden diesen Satz so entziffern koennen wie er urspruenglich gedacht war. Nur sehr geübte Leser werden diesen Satz so entziffern können wie er ursprünglich gedacht war. ...


9

I learned in school that the alphabet has 26 letters, A to Z, that was in the 1970s and 80s in Germany. Somehow the umlauts and the eszet were never mentioned when the alphabet was enumerated, I suppose because they are not considered proper letters in German. As for the letter "c", we have plenty of them, but in german words they only occur in the ...


9

If there is no way to type an umlaut character, then replacing e.g. ü by ue is the only correct option. Replacing it by u as you did in your question before the edit is incorrect. Indeed Gruß and grüß (or transliterated Gruss and gruess) are distinct German words with differently pronounced vowels. The latter is the imperative of the verb grüßen (to greet), ...


8

An easy way that requires just a little bit adjusting is using US International layout (it's what I'm using and I love it). There seem to exist different variants: With and without dead keys. Without dead keys, everything is normal, except you get lots of accented letters with AltGr, e.g., AltGr + s is ß, AltGr + p is ö, AltGr + q is ä and AltGr + y is ü. ...


8

How to handle person's names is a question that's quite common in libraries, for example. The "RAK-WB" ("Regeln für die Alphabetische Katalogisierung - Wissenschaftliche Bibliotheken") have a sophisticated system how to handle a person's name ("Ansetzung"), depending mainly on the nationality of that person. You can find more information on M. Payer's paper ...


8

Deine Grundannahme ist falsch "weihnachtlich" leitet sich nicht direkt von "der Nacht" sondern von "Weihnacht" ab. Siehe dazu: canoo Im Gegensatz dazu leitet sich "nächtlich" direkt von "Nacht" ab. Hier kommt es bei der Bildung mit dem Suffix -lich zu einer Anpassung des Stammes. Diese Stammanpassung wird bei "Weihnacht-lich" ausgelassen. Das Wörterbuch ...


7

Back in the days of typewriters this transcription was very common, it's certainly not wrong but the excuse that your computer keyboard does not have those keys is hardly valid nowadays as you can easily change the layout. So if you write a very important document and you use the transcription the recipient may take that as laziness on your part. I for one ...


7

On Mac OS X you can use: Alt+S = ß Alt+U then A = ä Alt+U then E = ë Alt+U then U = ü (Tested on a UK layout keyboard)


7

ä → ae ö → oe ü → ue Ä → Ae Ö → Oe Ü → Ue ß → ss (or SZ) The SZ is only for words in capitals (and I think for old spelling). Für LaTeX-Nutzer gibt es auch die Umschreibung "a, "o, "u, bzw. "A, "O, "U (bzw. \"a, \"o, \"u, bzw. \"A, \"O, \"U) You are also asking for a kind of official link. Maybe Din 5007 helps a bit. That's a norm for sorting. An "ä" ...


7

Abgesehen von einigen zusammengesetzten Adjektiven, die sich analog zum Stammadjektiv verhalten (z. B. wasserarm), werden im Deutschen meines Wissens nur primäre Adjektive¹ mit Umlautung gesteigert, von denen es nur etwa dreihundert gibt (was auch relativ normal sein dürfte). Von diesen enthält nur etwa die Hälfte einen umlautbaren Laut und ist steigerbar. ...


6

We could use the Unicode sign for a Diaresis and combine it with attributes underline or strike for the desired effect: ¨ Example for strike attribute


6

Under Linux, most layouts have the letter ß on AltGr+S. The most notable exception is the German keyboard itself. Here, AltGr+S generates the letter ſ, also know as „long s“.


6

The rule you cited only applies to strong verbs (also called irregular verbs): lesen: las, läse biegen: bog, böge schaffen: schuf, schüfe laufen: lief, liefe It is not applicable to weak verbs (regular verbs), which form the past tenses with -t-. For them, the Konjunktiv II is normally identical to the Präteritum: machen: machte, machte ...


6

Wikipedia: The umlaut diacritic, consisting of two dots above the vowel [...] Here are the new and old notation of umlauted vowels: Also worth reading: Diaeresis (diacritic): [...] umlaut is a diacritic that consists of two dots ( ¨ ) placed over a letter [...] When it comes to handwriting: In modern handwriting, the umlaut sometimes ...


6

Ä There's no obvious difference in pronouncing Ärzte or Ärmel. As for ätzend, the ä is slightly more "e-like" than the usual ä, as it is a short vowel. Ä is close in pronunciation to the a in that or cap - an a pronounced more "e-like". Ö Is pronounced like the u in purse or the e in Perth. EDIT: It is possible to practice the ö by forming an o with your ...


6

To be absolutely accurate, “Umlaut” is a technical term for the phonological/historical process which transforms - for example - /u/ to /y/. This is the only meaning recognised in the standard dictionaries (DWB, DWDS, Duden). The two dots on top of some letters are properly called “Pünktchen”. Compare this: http://www.dwds.de/?view=1&qu=Umlaut and this: ...


5

Here is wikipedia's take on the question. Following those rules would sort your list as Beethoven, Dörfener, Dorfer,de Maizière, Mustermann, von Neumann . [So sad you're last, John! But you remain my hero in 20th century mathematics :-). More seriously, the Hungarians call him Neumann János: they put family names before first names, and of course John ...


4

Or, which is the easiest way and quite often used in Germany, too (e.g. when the font doesn't include them, or - only ß - when writing in capital letters): ä = ae ü = ue ö = oe ß = ss ;)


4

In case of Zufall -> zufällig you create an adjective from a noun. Some hints when you can shift you find on canoo.net. When you add the suffixes -erig, -ern, -ig, -isch or -lich to a noun you can shift. But not always (gewaltig, schaumig). If you have an adjective and add a suffix, then shifting is possible for -ig and -lich. See again on canoo.net. For ...



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