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"Müssen" in German can also imply direction - the usage you are expecting is as auxiliary verb, like "können", "dürfen", "sollen": Etwas tun müssen Gehen müssen But you may use it without any verb to suggest movement without specifying the form (going, driving, flying, whatever) because it is important to be there, not how you got there. Ich muss ...
As you noted, there are two verbs that can be used in this situation: mitkommen and mit jemandem kommen. However, the verb mitkommen still needs a preposition. You could say (depending on the situation): Kommen: Deshalb bin ich mit einem Dolmetscher gekommen. or Mitkommen: Deshalb bin ich mit einem Dolmetscher mitgekommen. The second sentence ...
As a translation word by word I would prefer: Ich würde gerne versuchen, es zu schreiben. because the "it" in "I would like to try to write it" means that there is something specific you want to write about. Even better sounds: Ich würde gerne versuchen, es aufzuschreiben. (I would like to try to write it down.)
Wegfahren (drive off) is focussing on a short movement from a given location without concern for a final destination, although this movement might as well be only the beginning of a longer journey. The means of transport is usually a private one, a car, motorcycle, bicycle, etc.: Fahr von dort weg, du stehst im Halteverbot. Ich fahre noch kurz ...
In this context, "aufarbeiten" refers to the process of working through any psychological issues of going through a traumatic experience, especially when referring to things involving violence or guilt. It's very commonly used by people who went through a war or similar experiences. It is closely related to the English-language concept of transforming from ...
There is no need to add »gehen« because: In this case »müssen« is a verb of movement. Let's compare this three sentences: Sie müssen durch den Eingang, dann die Treppe hinauf und sofort rechts. Sie müssen durch den Eingang gehen, dann die Treppe hinauf und sofort rechts. Sie gehen durch den Eingang, dann die Treppe hinauf und sofort rechts. ...
singen -> Gesinge is valid, exactly follows the pattern and style of your other examples while Gesang definitely lacks the despective aspect. So the rule appears to be: drop the -n, add the Ge-.
According to the Grimms the verb abkommen was formerly also used in the meaning of "to agree with somebody on something": Endlich ist mit einem abkommen so viel als überein kommen, fertig werden, sich vertragen, vergleichen. Grimm This was similarily used like the modern verb übereinkommen which also exists as a noun Übereinkommen (agreement, ...
That is very much interesting, because it's not clear at all, and even I stumbled when I saw your question. According to the German Wiktionary, the original meaning of the noun was von einer (finanziellen) Schuld abkommen/lösen, i.e. to pay back one's debt. This usage makes it clear, what you're deviating from. A century later, the meaning of the noun had ...
In the context you provided, others have already explained the meaning. However, the verb "Aufarbeiten" in a different context can also men "to refresh", "to embellish": "Der Tisch wurde aufgebarbeitet". That means that before, it was somewhat ugly, worn, scratched, and it has been polished, maybe laquered, and is beautiful again.
Referring to Emanuel's comment above both: Ich würde es gern zu schreiben versuchen. Ich würde es gern versuchen, zu schreiben. are acceptable. This is because schreiben is connected to versuchen (rather than würde) so it requires a zu.
The first sentence is correct. The second sentence is wrong grammar. It should be habe instead of bin and mitgenommen instead of mitgekommen.
"Aufarbeiten" indicates the following There has been an very upsetting experience and you haven't been able to cope with it for a long time. You hurted someone or you were hurted. You clashed with your parents. You needed to leave. Whatever your action did, its consequences follows you now relentlessly in your mind. You finally come to the conclusion that ...
You're right, it is "gehen" in German as well. Sometimes people may leave out the verb in spoken languages since it's implied.
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