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7

Both cojunctions deshalb and weil are used to initiate a causal clause: Ich bin müde, weil ich nicht genug geschlafen habe. Ich habe nicht genug geschlafen, deshalb bin ich müde. In these examples we use one or the other. Sentence order does not matter for weil, as we can also say: Weil ich nicht genug geschlafen habe, bin ich müde. However, ...


-3

A substitue for "man" could be "dich" or "Sie" or "euch" etc., but I would just throw it away. "Man" is wrong here anyway, you cannot use it with prepositions. It may be only nominativ singular. "Wohnung" is the place where you permanently live. It's never used for a temporary accomodation like a hotel, hostel or like that. A correct word might be "Hotel", ...


2

Here there are two clauses. The main clause is: Ich weiß nicht and the subordinate clause is: wann der Zug abfährt. In first clause, Ich is the subject. The second clause is an altogether different sentence with its own subject. The subject of main clause is related with the action to know and the subordinate clause has has the subject der Zug, ...


6

The sentence consists of two clauses, one main clause (ich weiß nicht) and one subordinate clause (wann der Zug abfährt), each having their own verb and their own subject. Complex sentences can consist of many clauses.


8

"Schwarz" serves as an adverb here. "Den Kaffee schwarz trinken" has a special meaning of drinking coffee without milk.


2

For the position of adverbs, there isn’t really a difference between past and present tenses in German. For analytic tenses like Perfekt, the auxiliary verb haben or sein takes the position of the full verb in synthetic tenses Präsens and Präteritum – i.e. second position in main clauses – and the participle comes last (except in subordinate clauses, where ...


4

First, we have the problem in the sentence John gefällt Mary. that it is not clear whether John or Mary is the subject. Let us assume the former and switch to Er gefällt ihr. to make this clear. You are right that this means something like She likes him. but not so much in the sense that she loves him, more in the sense that she has a ...



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