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1

The word “ändern” refers to "changing" something by adding something different or leading someone in a new direction. In essence, you are changing the "mix," rather than the underlying object. This is sometimes referred to as "retail" change. On the other hand “verändern” has the connotation of changing something by replacing what's already there. In the ...


2

"Teutsch" is used to suggest that german nationalism has gone overboard with someone. This is not particularly recent, either - Kurt Tucholsky wrote (in 1923,) about post-WW I Germany: Da steht eine ganze Nation. Sie ist krachen gegangen, weil sie teutsch war, statt deutsch zu sein – und statt sich zur Abkehr zu wenden, glaubt sie, es liege daran, ...


0

The three words refer to the degree of effort or skill on the part of the actor that brought about the result. Ausfallen literally means to "fall out." That is to turn out "randomly." Geraten also means to "turn out," but is largely a result of effort or skill. Gelingen is to succeed. It is a result (mostly) of one's making. "The cake turned out well." "...


1

Politeness begins with proper salutation and ends with a kind goodbye. Written fragments of a conversation in a forum help little to understand the concept of being polite as pronounciation, gestures and facial expressions are an important factor - lookup: non-verbal communication. Example for a conversation without using "bitte": "Guten Morgen/Tag/...


7

Teutschland is a variant of Deutschland used in older styles of writing before spelling began to be standardized around 1850. For example in this text from 1745 you can see that the name is used beside Deutschland and other names: https://de.wikisource.org/wiki/Zedler:Teutschland Unfortunately I'm not really sure about the etymology of the word but I think ...


13

"Teutschland" is in fact an old spelling of "Deutschland". The designation "deutsch" originates from the Old High German word "diutisc", which meant "belonging to the people". In short, the meaning was to differentiate speakers of Germanic languages like Franconian or Gothic from their neighbors who spoke Romance languages. Over the centuries and in ...


4

Gelingen is the easy one. It means "succeed". As such it should not need great explanations. Ausfallen emphasises the final outcome of a process. Wie ist seine Entscheidung ausgefallen? The other two would be wrong here. Geraten This is extremely hard to pin down, but I would say it emphasises the process far more than ausfallen. Although they ...


1

ausfallen This word has several meanings and its use as a translation of "turn out" probably is not the most common. I think it's mostly used as a synonym for unusual or something special ("Das ist ein ausgefallener Kuchen") or if something planned doesn't take place ("Das Konzert ist ausgefallen" or "Der Zug ist ausgefallen"). As a translation of "turn ...


0

I can only tell subjectively as a native speaker. The only ausfallen (meaning geraten) use case that comes to my mind is when trying on clothes: Wie sitzt die Hose? Sie fällt sehr groß aus. Geraten and gelingen make sense especially when something is manually made or you have direct influence on it: Der Kuchen ist gut geraten! Der Kuchen ist dir ...


5

"etwas dafür können" or "nichts dafür können" (there is no "etwas dagegen können") means wether something is your fault or not or if you are responsible for something that happened or not. It does not necessarily express if you are for or against it or if you want to do something about it or not. You could say: Ja, ich bin reich geboren. Aber dafür ...


4

"Beurteilen" is often way more conclusive and authoritative. Der Schüler kann seine Leistung einschätzen, der Lehrer muss sie beurteilen. It may be worth stressing, "Beurteilen" has "Urteil" in it. "Urteil", in its most fundamental occurrence, means "verdict". Hence, when verdicts and formal evaluations are concerned, it is strongly preferred. ...


1

I guess they mostly can be used interchangeably, but they are not exactly the same. Einschätzen contains the word estimate, so it doesn't sound as definitely as a Beurteilung. After someone had a test and doesn't know his result yet, it would be more natural to ask: Wie schätzt Du Dein Ergebnis ein? than "Wie beurteilst Du Dein Ergebnis?" - because ...


0

Although both terms usually mean to turn things on, "Einschalten" can also be used for persons or departments when they are brought into something. Like: Er hat einen Rechtsanwalt eingeschaltet. Die Polizei hat sich eingeschaltet. Das Amt für Migration schaltet sich ein. You could not use anschalten for this purpose. If you want to turn ...


2

Eintrag = entry Beitrag = contribution Both nouns are related with verbs: eintragen This means to write a new item into a list. Wer mit dem Bus zum Treffen fahren will, muss sich in diese Liste eintragen. Who wants to travel with the bus to the meeting has to enter his name in this list. So an »Eintrag« is an entry in a list or in something ...


1

The words are quite similar, but not exchangeble here: Eintrag would be short for Logbucheintrag - which a Weblog-entry is basically. Beitrag is a post/addendum to a (forum) thread like a comment. It could also be an editorial in a newspaper, in which case the entry/Eintrag part would be misplaced. The terminologies overlap here. Posted by XXX should've ...


0

While I also consider anschalten and einschalten as mostly synonymous (no difference in your examples), I'd like to add the following Anschalten has a (rarely used) additional meaning, which I would consider as technical term and which relates to the equally rarely used substantive Anschaltung: This means, to add some device to an already existing ...


1

Diese Adjektive drücken aus, dass etwas ein das Wesen einer Sache grundlegend ausmachender Bestandteil ist: konstitutiv; integral; elementar; fundamental (Kraftwerk könnten daraus bestimmt ein neues Stück machen.) Okay, 'integral' ist unter Umständen ein Wackelkandidat, aber ohne das Wort würde sich die Liste ja gar nicht mehr reimen.


4

Existentiell bedeutet in meinem Sprachgebrauch "Wenn das nicht mehr bei was ist, gibt es das was nicht mehr" - Also grundlegend notwendig (oder eben "Vorbedingung") für die Existenz bzw. das "Sein" des "was". ("Sein" hier nicht im Sinne von "Dasein" und damit "Leben", sondern eben "Existenz") Nehmen wir z.B. lt. Duden etwas Lebendiges: Regelmässiges ...


2

sehr gern "Sehr gern" is used in two cases. It might be clearer if you regard "Sehr gern" as abbreviation for: First as reply to a question like in your example. "[...] Soll ich dir eine neue bestellen?" (That would be kind / yes please) "Das wäre nett/freundlich." / "Ja, bitte." or "Das hätte ich sehr gern so." <- And this is ...


3

It's correct that "Sehr gerne." can be translated to each of those English expressions. While those expressions indeed have something in common they also have subtle but distinct meanings. So at the end of the day it clearly depends on the context. In your example, the German expression "Sehr gerne." is simply a variation of "Ja, bitte." and, as such, is ...


0

While "Sehr gerne." would be correct, it sounds slightly weird. (If I read it, I would consider that as spoken by someone from another region). It is used that way, but I would be asking myself "Sehr gerne was?" — What is it what you do gladly? Accepting my Bahncard? Maybe you want to consider the more literal translation "Ja, bitte, vielen Dank!".


0

Yes, this is correct. I wouldn't translate "With pleasure." with "Sehr gerne.". "With pleasure." is more like "Mit Vergnügen.".


24

Generally, I – as a German – would say that things that will happen in future are composed with ab. Ab morgen gehe ich arbeiten. Things that began in the past but span to the present are composed with seit. Seit gestern gehe ich arbeiten.


4

In der ganzen Liste fehlt eindeutig das müssen: "Ich muss mal!" "Gross oder klein?" Die Bedeutung dürfte eindeutig sein.


14

Ein "Fangirl" oder "Fanboy" meint einen unkritischen Fan von etwas oder jemandem (einem Künstler, einem Unternehmen etc.). Meist ist es abwertend gemeint, im Sinne von "War doch klar, dass die Fanboys sich diese Aktion auch noch schönreden" oder "wer XY jetzt noch verteidigt, ist doch nur ein blauäugiges Fangirlie". Ob "-girl" oder "-boy" richtet sich nach ...


0

"Vor" can be translated as "ago." And refers to a single "point in time." "Seit" can be translated as "for." And refers to "since the time period, up to the present. Ich habe vor einem Monat in Graz gewohnt. I lived in Graz one month ago. Ich habe seit einem Monat in Graz gewohnt. I've lived in Graz for one month, continuing to the present since then.


4

In addition to detailed answers here, sometimes a picture is worth a thousand words. Vor Ich bin vor 3 Jahren nach Zürich gezogen. I moved to Zurich 3 years ago. –> This was a single event that happened at a specific point in the past. I’m just relating it to the present by saying “3 years ago” and not “in 2009”. seit Ich wohne seit 3 Jahren in ...


1

Tense does matter here. When referring to a specific point in time in the past vor: use it like you would use ago in English. (20 yrs ago … / Vor 20 Jahren …) if something began in the past and is still going on (specific point in time) seit: use it like you would use since in English. (since 1958 … / seit 1958 …) if something began in the past and is ...


2

I would like to point out, that "dus" only exists in verbal language. It is, how tohuwawohu explained, a merge of "du" + "es". Generally, if you would like to write this combination of words, it would only work with apostrophe. But I generally would avoid using this "verbal flow abbreviation" in written language, because "du es" is the right way to do it. ...


11

In fact this is an idiomatic phrase; it may communicate an elative, intensifying meaning, but usually, it simply expresses the speaker's firm opinion of a certain circumstance. It's commonly used, also in written language. It may also be used to create a elative/superlative meaning for characteristics you can't form a comparative for. This is true in your ...



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