2 added 268 characters in body
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The meaning of your example is closer to

What will become of Germany?

instead of

What will Germany become?

Using "aus" puts emphasis on the fact that Germany will evolve/develop into something; its meaning is somewhat closer to "What will happen to Germany evolve into?" than it is to "What will it become?"

Quote from the duden.de article about "aus":

zur Angabe eines früheren Entwicklungsstadiums in Verbindung mit Verben, die ein Werden bezeichnen. Beispiele:
- aus den Raupen entwickeln sich Schmetterlinge
- aus seiner Tochter wurde eine tüchtige Ärztin

The meaning of your example is closer to

What will become of Germany?

instead of

What will Germany become?

Using "aus" puts emphasis on the fact that Germany will evolve/develop into something; its meaning is somewhat closer to "What will happen to Germany?" than it is to "What will it become?"

The meaning of your example is closer to

What will become of Germany?

instead of

What will Germany become?

Using "aus" puts emphasis on the fact that Germany will evolve/develop into something; its meaning is somewhat closer to "What will Germany evolve into?" than it is to "What will it become?"

Quote from the duden.de article about "aus":

zur Angabe eines früheren Entwicklungsstadiums in Verbindung mit Verben, die ein Werden bezeichnen. Beispiele:
- aus den Raupen entwickeln sich Schmetterlinge
- aus seiner Tochter wurde eine tüchtige Ärztin

1
source | link

The meaning of your example is closer to

What will become of Germany?

instead of

What will Germany become?

Using "aus" puts emphasis on the fact that Germany will evolve/develop into something; its meaning is somewhat closer to "What will happen to Germany?" than it is to "What will it become?"