This is a follow-up-question to Usage of 'éine' instead of 'eine' , because I am still reading that book.

Maybe one of the people here have a clue to another thing I can't explain to myself.

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What does he mean with these weird quotation marks? Why doesn't he use the normal ones, which he does around "Meine Erlebnisse" 2 lines earlier?

And another question: since I never read anything about these (but also éine), why didn't he document this? Has he done that in his other books somewhere, so the meaning of his ideas won't get lost?

  • Is he maybe differentiating between unclear terms and fixed terms?
    – Toscho
    Commented Jan 24, 2014 at 18:50
  • 1
    In der Kunst und der Liebe ist alles erlaubt. Commented Jan 25, 2014 at 0:59
  • 𝗉(MATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF SMALL P)meine Erlebnisseᵈ(MODIFIER LETTER SMALL D) -- 𝗉meine Erlebnisseᵈ -- Close enough there you go. BTW: these are the unicode descriptions of the letters used which I got from the Mac OS X 10.8 character palette. Commented Mar 1, 2014 at 8:25

2 Answers 2


A similar question on s-shaped quotation marks in another philosophy book came up on Graphic Design and let me do some research.

In particular, I stumbled upon Metaphysics, Mathematics, and Meaning by Nathan Salmon which has entire passages about quotation marks and in particular states at one point:

I use Quine’s quasi-quotation marks, ‘⌜’ and ‘⌝’ in combination with ‘α’. In quasi-quotation, all internal expressions are quoted, i.e., mentioned (designated), except for metalinguistic variables, whose values are mentioned. I use single quotation marks for direct (expression) quotation. Following Kaplan, I use superscripted occurrences of ‘m’ as indirect-quotation marks, and superscripted occurrences of ‘M’ as indirect-quasi-quotation marks.

Taking all this together, I guess that it is quite common in philosophy to use different types of quotation marks to distinguish different forms of quotation or reference on a meta level such as (to give simple examples):

  • Citing another author verbatim.
  • Referring to the word as such (and not what it means).
  • Scare quotes and indicating metaphoric use of a word (such as for lack of a better word).
  • Referring to the meaning of a word.
  • Marking a word or term that is being defined at that very point.

I still do not know, what these particular quotation marks mean, but I am pretty confident that they are a form of special-purpose notation that is only used by Carnap or at most in philosophy. Whatever their meaning is, Carnap should have introduced them at some point (or it should be common knowledge in the respective field), presumably in § 75 as that’s pretty much what he is writing in the passage in question:

More precisely in the terminology of § 75: ₚmeine Erlebnisse ͩ.


My guess is that § which means Paragraph starts with the letter P. These quotation marks are enclosing the heading of Paragraph §71. To signify and highlight this fact of it being a name or heading of a "Paragraph" he is using the p as start and an upside down p as the end just like with normal upright and upside down quotation marks. ;)

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