As others said, the best way to come to terms with the idiocrasies of a language is to learn that language. my personal experience suggests that exposure to lots (lots) of vocabulary is preferable to exposure to lots of grammar. however, experience also tells me (and this is supported by results in linguistic research) that success in learning a foreign language is a very individual affair, much more than learning math for example. so ymmv, and don't be discouraged by slow progress.
Familiarity with languages from the same language family can help you in guessing a meaning or even some words. a strict correspondence between written language and phonetic realisations (like in French or Serbo-Croatian) usually helps, too, but you speak good English and thus you already have experienced the worst.
Another rule of the thumb: Languages with a rich morphology who express grammatical categories by clitics, pre- and suffixes are usually said to be harder; the classical examples, however, Hungarian and Finnish, suffer from crosstalk due to their isolation in the overall linguistic families such that there are few common word roots with 'Western' or Slavic languages.
Sorry for shirking a more specific recommendation.