The English Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org) has an extensive, well researched and definitive article on the use of quotation marks in most countries of the world. The graphics for the quotes are set out in two main columns (Primary and Alternative usage), with each main column subdivided into the graphics for double and single quotes.
For "German" the primary usage is listed as single and double quotes. The alternative usage is the inward pointing single arrows rather than the internationally more common outward pointing arrows.
On the other hand, Swiss German is listed in the article's table as having exactly the opposite usage, but with outward pointing arrows as the primary usage, and quotes as the alternative usage, i.e., quote marks rather than inward pointing arrows is perhaps the preferred usage.
As for terminology, the Wikipedia article indicates that Gänsefüßchen ("little goose feet") is the name for the arrow quotes, with Anführungszeichen as the name for quote marks. And from their appearance, I'd say that "little goose feet" is a very appropriate name for arrow quotes.
Finally, User 15677's ALT-code answer that two commenters deprecated was more than helpful to me, as I have have for many years been using ALT-codes to enter the umlauted vowels Ää Ëë Ïï Öö and Üü not found on my English language QWERTY keyboard, as well as the double-ess character "ß". Serendipitously, I happen to be engrossed in mapping the ALT-codes for my Sütterlin script fonts and User 15677's answer put me on to a character I'd been looking for, the "hyphen" character (ALT+0173). And I thank the member very much for obliquely helping me to find it!