We should also note that in Germany asking this will inevitably give you an answer. In a formal setting you may hear a standard "Danke, gut" irrespect of this being correct or not but the less formal it gets the more you will have to be prepared to hear an honest answer even if it was: "Mir geht's nicht so gut. Meine Freundin hat mich gestern verlassen, mein Job wurde gekündigt, und mein Vermieter hat mich herausgeschmissen."
Regionally (e.g. in Swabia where I live) poeple even start complaining after you had asked (which is considered a polite response then).
"Wie geht's?" - "Oh, schon recht, aber..." (list of misfortunes)
To signalize you are not really interested in hearing such details some poeple do not ask but put it in a statement like:
Ich hoffe Ihnen geht es gut. Lassen Sie uns nun ...