Ich habe Übungen gemacht. Täglich.
Is totally valid in a general conversation. I'd even go that far and say that people will find it more awkward if you are trying to formulate everything you say as a sentence.
You can add further phrases just the same:
Ich habe Übungen gemacht. Täglich. Mit einem Freund.
Of course, at some point this starts to sound like you are babbling single words, instead of talking. You might want to connect all the additional thoughts into one single additional group of words, with only a little pause inbetween (indicated by ",")
Ich habe Übungen gemacht. Täglich, mit einem Freund.
This way, a listener who might doubt the truthfulness of your single first sentence could be convinced by these two additions that strengthen the first sentence.
There's one example quote from a movie that just came to my mind:
Tony Stark was able to build this in a cave! With a box of scraps!
As you can see, adding more words after a sentence is a valid thing to put more emphasize on the sentence and its true meaning.
Admittedly, this line is from a movie scene and the words are spoken in rage, which is probably not you intended use case. Anyway, the example shows that this is a valid thing to do in spoken language.