Is "Vgl." (with a lower case L) or "VgI." (with an upper case i) a standard abbreviation used in footnotes and/or references/biblography of German academic publications, or is this simply an abbreviation for a name?

The paper I am reading is from 1916 or so, so whatever this is might have gone out of fashion. I am also unsure, due to the print quality, if it is a lower case L or an upper case i following Vg.

The full sentence (assuming lower case L) is:

Vgl. etwa E. Czuber, Geometrische Wahrscheinlichkeiten und Mittelwerte, Leipzig 1884, S. 197.

closed as off-topic by c.p., fifaltra, boaten, user unknown, Burki Jul 22 '15 at 7:55

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  • 6
    Vgl. -> vergleiche (compare). Not out of fashion at all, still alive and kicking. – Stephie Jul 21 '15 at 18:35
  • 3
    If you came to the conclusion that vgl. could be written there, why didn't you look up in a dictionary? – c.p. Jul 21 '15 at 19:14
  • I don't always find what I'm looking for in the LEO dictionary. But upon consultation, I could find this one in LEO. Sorry. – Sinister Cutlass Jul 21 '15 at 20:56
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    @SinisterCutlass, LEO is good, but sometimes you need more. than one dictionary. I suggest pons and dict.cc. – Stephie Jul 22 '15 at 10:17

Yes, vgl. (with an L) is a common abbreviation for vergleiche (compare). I believe the English equivalent is cf. (abbreviation of Latin confer, sometimes also used in German). The etwa (vergleiche etwa) indicates that there is a multitude of possible references, of which the author picked one in a more or less haphazard way.

Other abbreviations used in the same context include s. (siehe, see) and s. a. (siehe auch, see also).

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