For example in the sentence:
Outcome measures for this study include three-year-survival rate and relapse.
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The most common german term for this seems
Ergebnisgröße (Vernacular Title)
and means a (measurement) quantity to judge the result, not a result itself. It's not only used in medical studies. Similar to output quantity, it's a quantity to evaluate something. For example in a clinical study, an outcome measure could be Patientenzufriedenheit, Gelenkbeweglichkeit (nach Anwendung einer neuen Operationsmethode, die evaluiert und mit anderen verglichen werden muss), Rückfallquote (bei neuen Suchttherapien)... So these are quantities you define yourself in the context of a specific study/meta-study and also how these quantities are measured exactly (Operationalization problem). There are a thousand ways to measure Patientenzufriedenheit, so it's crucial to find an objective one, while something like Blutdruck has a fixed and known method.