This quote is from the following page: http://www.lsa.umich.edu/german/hmr/Grammatik/Wortstellung/nicht.html
Use "kein" if what you are negating is
a noun preceded by ein/eine
a noun not preceded by any article
Use "nicht" if what you are negating is
a noun preceded by "der/das/die."
a noun preceded by a "possessive adjective" (e.g. "mein," "dein," etc.)
a proper noun (i.e. a name, usually following "sein" or "heißen")
Or more generally speaking, use "kein" when something is rather undetermined (uncountable nouns, indefinite article) and "nicht" for more determined things (definite article, possessive pronouns).
"Kein"/"nicht" does not imply any difference in terms of length of time.
Wir trinken keinen Wein.
can mean both that you do not drink wine in general (which is what I would have thought of first), or that you do not want to drink wine e.g. tonight. For the latter, you would usually add the time span, though.
Wir trinken heute abend keinen Wein.