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I know the rules of using adverbs in present tense, but I’m not sure how I should use them in perfect tense. For instance, I want to say:

I and my friends understood well in school.

Then I don’t know which of these options is right:

Meine Freunde und ich haben uns gut in der Schule verstanden.

Meine Freunde und ich haben uns in der Schule gut verstanden.

Which one is correct and why?

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    Both is correct, due to the flexible word order in German. The second one is the normal order without stressing any part in particular. – Are you sure you mean sich verstehen, though? It’s get along with in English. – chirlu Jan 17 '16 at 12:01
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For the position of adverbs, there isn’t really a difference between past and present tenses in German. For analytic tenses like Perfekt, the auxiliary verb haben or sein takes the position of the full verb in synthetic tenses Präsens and Präteritum – i.e. second position in main clauses – and the participle comes last (except in subordinate clauses, where the auxiliary follows).

Both suggested translations are acceptable, but they have slightly different implications, at least in literal German where there is no information by intonation available:

    • Meine Freunde und ich verstehen uns gut in der Schule.
    • Meine Freunde und ich verstanden uns gut in der Schule.
    • Meine Freunde und ich haben uns gut in der Schule verstanden.
    • Meine Freunde und ich verstehen uns in der Schule gut.
    • Meine Freunde und ich verstanden uns in der Schule gut.
    • Meine Freunde und ich haben uns in der Schule gut verstanden.

The second variant is the default order (first location/situation/context, then modal) and should normally be used. With the first variant, proficient speakers will expect an (implied) aber clause, because in der Schule is emphasized a bit by coming after gut: In a different situation, the speaker and their friends don’t get along as well as they do in school.

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