While writing in German, suppose you need to quote somebody, whose German transliteration differs from the transliteration as appears in the language of the work you want to do the citation from, for instance, Chaikovski and Tschaikowski.

blah blah, so Tschaikowski (cf. [Tjaj85]). Mehr text auf Deutsch.

and in the references

[Tjaj85] Pjotr I. Tjajkovskij, "Title of some work in Danish", Jour. of App. Symph. Mus. 1885

Can I homogenize the transliteration in favor of German, or am I expected to respect the original and thus having two inconsistent names of an author along my text?

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    Note that neither Tschaikowski nor Tjajkovskij are transliterations; instead, they are transcriptions. A transliteration is a 1:1 mapping between letters; e.g., a transliteration would never represent Ч (one Cyrillic letter) as Tsch or Tj (four or two Latin letters). – chirlu Jan 25 '16 at 15:52
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    Last note: Since it‘s not really specific to German, might the question be better suited for Academia.SE? – chirlu Jan 25 '16 at 15:56
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    This isn't really german-specific. Move to academia.stackexchange? – arved Jan 25 '16 at 15:56
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    Doch doch: rules for writing words from foreign languages and scripts are highly-language dependent. (I mean, nobody is suggesting using the actual Cyrillic in German ever, whereas in Russian it's perfectly fine to write 'YouTube' or 'Bosch' in many contexts.) – Adam Bittlingmayer Jan 25 '16 at 19:23
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    I haven’t dealt with this in an academic context yet myself and I would assume it depends more on the house style than language, but if I had to I would do something like @chirlu suggested, but maybe using als ‘as’ like IMDb, for instance, does. In Biblatex, there would be the nameaddon field for uses like that, by the way. – Crissov Jan 25 '16 at 20:59

You write the citation in the way of the original and leave it to the intelligence of the audience to recognize, that the name refers to the same person, mentioned in another style before.

The whole idea of citation is, to be pedantically exact.

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