I don't think that you should really try to build an exhaustive list of particle verbs and their particles. My grammar lexicon (DUDEN, Die Grammatik, 2005) has 10 pages for particle verbs alone.
Here is a list of possible particles/prefixes as I found it in that dictionary (Rule 1062):
- ab, an, auf, aus, bei, durch, hinter, mit, nach über, um, unter, vor, wider, zu; ein (entspricht der Präposition in)
- her, hin, herunter, hinunter, dahin
- fest, frei, hoch
- preis- in preisgeben, stand- in standhalten, teil- in teilhaben, teilnehmen
(1) prepositional, (2) adverbial, (3) adjectival, (4) substantival
This list is already really long, but it is explicitly marked as exemplary and indeed, there are many, many more (e.g. entgegen, entlang, gegen ; fort, heim ; fern, glatt ; stand, wett ).
To make things more confusing, there is a distinction between particle and prefix verbs. Particle verbs can be separated, prefix verbs cannot.
For instance, durchstreifen is a prefix verb, but durchtragen ist a particle verb. durchlaufen is both a particle and prefix verb and has a slightly different meaning depending on what it actually is. Another example is überprüfen (prefix verb), überwechseln (particle verb) and übergehen (both prefix and particle verb).
So from the prefix alone you can't tell if you can separate a word or not. A better way to tell if a verb is separable is the stress. Prefix verbs are stressed on the verb part, particle verbs are stressed on the particle.
Using the verbs from above, this would be durch'streifen for the prefix verb and 'durchtragen for the particle verb. durchlaufen can be either stressed as durch'laufen (then it is a prefix verb and means to go or run through something, e.g. a gamut) or 'durchlaufen (then it is a particle verb and means to wear something out by walking with or over it, e.g. shoes).
Prefixes, that can come in front of prefix verbs (but are also particles) are durch, über, um, unter, hinter and wider. The rest build particle verbs, but as I said already, the list goes on and on.